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Social Psychology Ch2
Terms in this set (49)
Research whose goals are to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to find solutions to practical problems.
Research whose goal is to increase the understanding of human behavior, often by testing hypotheses based on theory.
Bogus Pipeline Technique
A procedure in which research participants are (falsely) led to believe that their responses will be verified by an infallible lie-detector.
Accomplice of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment, acts as if he or she is also a participant.
The extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate.
A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables.
Research designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher.
A disclosure, made to participants after research procedures are completed, in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research, attempts to resolve any negative feelings, and emphasizes the scientific contribution made by the participants' involvement.
In the context of research, a method that provides false information to participants.
Dependent Variable (DV)
In an experiment, a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the Independent Variable (IV).
A form of research that can demonstrate causal relationship because (1) the experimenter has control over the events that occur and (2) participants are randomly assigned to conditions.
The degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them to behave naturally and spontaneously.
Experimenter Expectancy Effects
The effects produced when an experimenter's expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby influence the participant's responses.
The degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations.
A testable prediction about the conclusions under which an event will occur.
Independent Variable (IV)
In an experiment, a factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependent variable (DV).
An individual's deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research, based on the experimenter's description of what will be required during such participation.
The degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables (IV) in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables (DV).
The degree to which different observers agree on their observations.
A set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects.
The degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world.
The specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable.
A method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions.
A method of selecting participants for a study so that everyone in a population has an equal chance of being in the study.
A variable that characterizes pre-existing differences among the participants in a study.
An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena.
A direct relationship where as the amount of one variable increases, the amount of the second variable increases.
As the amount of one variable goes up, the levels of another variables go down.
Statistical assessment of whether observations reflect a pattern rather than just chance.
Systematic Hypothesis Testing
Scientific method of quantifying how certain you are of the result of a statistical experiment.
Thinking Like a Researcher
1988: Psychology students exhibit the greatest improvement in reasoning skills.
Necessity for Science
We construct our own reality, OJ.
Asking questions about their attitudes, beliefs, & behaviors.
1. strengths: can be conducted in person, by phone, mail, internet.
2. weaknesses: can be affected strongly by subtle wording and question context.
Non-experimental design. To describe people and their thoughts, feelings, & behaviors.
Participants disclose their thoughts, feelings, desires, & actions. Measure variables.
Weakness: Not always accurate and misleading: Bogus Pipeline Technique
Observing people's actions.
advantage: researcher avoids faulty self-reports and distorted interpretations of our own behavior.
weakness: must be an agreement among multiple observers to be reliable.
Examines existing records of past events and behaviors: newspaper articles, medical records, diaries, sports statistics, personal ads, crime statistics, or web page hits.
a. Can be sure they did not influence the behavior by their presence.
b. Valuable in examining cultural & historical trends.
a. available records are not always complete or sufficiently detailed.
b. May have been collected in a non-systematic manner.
Experiments - treat then observe changes in behavior - to establish cause and effect
Two groups assigned at random (equal chance to be in either group)
Treatment group (experimental group) behavior observed versus control group behavior
Quasi-experimental (causal-comparative) has no randomization
Randomization essential in TRUE experiments!!!
No treatments given
Observe and describe
Often called descriptive research
The type of measurement used does not indicate whether or not research is experimental
Cause and effect determined by true experiments, only suggested by quasi
Bystander Intervention Study
Stanley Milgram: Obedience Studies: 65% used voltage
IV: Authority Figure (Teachers)
DV: 1. (Conceptual) Obedience
2. (Opperant Defiant) Amount of voltage level delivered.
1. Believably of shock occurring
2. Socioeconomic status of teacher, age, gender.
Eliminate these effects on IV
Bystander Intervention Study
Darley & Latane: Katie Jenavede
IV (situational factors): 1. Other People Around
2. # of bystanders (IV manipulates DV)
DV: Helping Behavior
Television Violence Study
IV: Exposure to violence (violence group vs. non violence group)
EV: Gender, Socioeconomic status, age, preoccupation, DNA, upbringing, religiosity.
the state of holding two or more conflicting cognitions (e.g., ideas, beliefs, values, emotional reactions) simultaneously.
Cognitive Dissonance Study
IV: Amount of money given to lie about excitement of task
a. $1 b. $20
DV: Affect of lying
EV: Gender, age, SES
Stanford Prison Study
Zimbardo: Guards took off
Religion & Prejudice
Can study but can't experiment
more religious more prejudice
Conformity and Culture
Deception and Ethics
Negative Attribution style and depression
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