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MTEL General Curriculum Part 9
Terms in this set (134)
animals can be classified as carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, and parasites
refers to a predator that feeds on another organism, which results in its death
heterotorphs that consume organic dead matter
animals that are meat eaters
eat both meat and plants
What is a parasite's food source?
lives off of a host (the host does not benefit from the relationship
classified as carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, proteins, vitamins, and water
supply a specific substance required for various species to survive, grow, and reproduce
measurement of heat energy
used to represent how much energy a food can provide or how much energy an organism needs to live
how chemical elements required by living organisms cycle between living and nonliving organisms
What cycles do elements go through?
linking of organisms in a community that is based on how they use each other as food sources
this refers to an increase in concentration of a substance within a food chain
consists of interconnected food chains in a community
Energy flow (in food chains/webs)
used to refer to the actual caloric flow through a system from trophic level to trophic level
link in a food chain or a level of nutrition
10% rule (90% of energy lost)
What is the final link in a food chain?
concept that states that a stable ecosystem is perfectly efficient
Waste disposal and nutrient replenishment
sunlight as an energy source
populations are stable (do not over consume resources)
How are seasonal changes or expected climate fluctuations balanced?
concept that states that there is an orderly progression of change within a community
occurs after a disturbance or major event that greatly affects a community
measure of how many individuals exist in a specific area
unlimited rising growth rate
What are factors that can limit individuals in a population?
lack of resources like food, water, space, habitat destruction, competition, disease, and predators
population sixe that can be sustained
how a population changes over time and the factors that cause changes
refers to members of a species protecting areas from other members of their species and from other species
species members claim specific areas as their own
refers to the species in a community that is the most populous
when a species or individual in a community exhibits behaviors that benefit another individual to a cost to itself
does not have to be a conscious sacrifice
refers to behavior by an organism that is intended to intimidate or frighten away members of its own or another species
Principle of Competitive Exclusion (Gause's Law)
if there are limited or insufficient resources and species are competing for them, these species will not be able to co-exist
result is that one species will become extinct or be forced to undergo a behavioral or evolutionary change
any number of species interacting within a given area
role of a species within a community
number of species within a community and their populations
refers to an area in which species are associated because of climate
6 Biomes in North America
desert, tropical, rain forest, grassland, coniferous forest, deciduous forest, and tundra
living factors that affect a community or a poulation
nonliving factors that affect a community or population, such as facets of the environment
study of plants, animals, their environments, and how they interact
community of species and all of the environment factors that affect them
in ecology, refers to the mass of one or all of the species in an ecosystem or area
relationships among members of a species
relationships between members of different species
adaptation developed as a response to predation
fool the predator into thinking the organism is more dangerous than it really is
refers to interspecific relationships in which one of the organisms benefits
mutualism, competition, parasitism
relationship in which both organisms benefit from an interaction
relationship in which both organisms are harmed
relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed
substances that have mass and occupy space
solid liquid, and gas
Why is there a difference in states of matter?
distances and angles between molecules or atoms which result in differences in the energy that binds them
What does all matter consist of?
What do atoms consist of?
nucleus and electrons
the nucleus has protons and neutrons
How can an element be identified?
its atomic number, or the number or protons on its nucleus
substances containing two or more elements
formed by chemical reactions and frequently have different properties than the original elements.
decomposed by chemical reaction
two or more different substances that are mixed togethe
What do solutions have?
a solute (substance that is dissolved)
a solvent (the substance that does the dissolving)
How are solutions formed?
when the forces of the molecules of the solute and the solvent are as strong as the individual molecular forces of the solute and the solvent
How are elements represented?
Upper Case Letters
What does the subscript do?
indicate the number of atoms
How do molecular formulas organize elements?
the Hill system
basic units of matter
nucleus surrounded by electrons
atom consists of protons and neutrons
positively charged and dense
uncharged atomic particles contained within the nucleus
positively charged, and are in the nucleus
What determines the atomic number?
The number of protons and neutrons
refers collectively to neutrons and protons
atomic particles that are negatively charged and orbit the nucleus of an atom
orbit the nucleus at various levels referred to as layers, shells, or clouds.
What indicates the charge of the atom?
the number of protons - the number of electrons
of an element refers to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
represented by a Z
mass number, total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
represented by an A
A = P + N
relative atomic mass
ratio of the average mass per atom of a sample to 1/12 of the mass of an atom
qualities of a substance which cannot be determined by simply looking at the substance and must be determined through chemical reactions
observed or measured without chemical reactions
color, elasticity, mass, volume, temperature
measure of the amount of substance of an object
measure of the gravitational pull of Earth on an object
measure of the amount of space occupied
V = l x w x h
or V = a^3
the measure of the amount of mass per unit volume
D = m/V
D = g/cm^3
measure of the ratio of a substance's density compared to the density of water
do not result in different substances
concerned with the constituent particles that make up th e physicality of a substance
group elements with similar chemical properties together
grouping based on atomic structure
shows trends of physical and chemical properties and identifies families of elements with similar properties
How many columns are there on the periodic table?
18 and they are called GROUPS
Group 1 of the Periodic Table
Group 2 of the Periodic Table
Alkaline Earth metals
Groups 3-12 of the Periodic Table
Group 13 of the Periodic Table
Group 14 of the Periodic Table
Group 15 of the Periodic Table
Group 16 of the Periodic Table
Group 17 of the Periodic Table
Group 18 of the Periodic Table
How many rows are there on the Periodic table?
7 rows called PERIODS
decrease from left to right
increase from top to bottom
atoms likeliness of taking another atom's electrons
How many electron shells are there and how many electrons can they hold to be "full"
S - 2
P - 6
trend whereby electrons fill shells and subshells in an element in a particular order and which a particular number of electrons
Do the shells have to be completely filled before the next one begins to be filled?
When are electrons transferred?
when they come into contact with each other
How is a negative ion created?
when an atom gains electrons while a positive ion is created when an atom loses electrons
formed between ions with opposite charges resulting in a neutral compound
refers to the process by which neutral particles are ionized into charged particles
How do atoms interact?
by transferring or sharing the electrons furthest from the nucleus, known as VALENCE ELECTRONS
variation in the number of neutrons in an atom
can be written by placing the number of nucleons in superscript before the element's symbol
What are important properties of water?
high specific heat
high heat of vaporization
accelerate chemical reactions
How is the rate of a chemical reaction determined?
by how frequently reacting atoms and molecules interact
influenced by temperature and reacting materials
What do chemical equations do?
describe chemical reactions
does snot follow the law of conservation of mass
needs to be balanced
How can we organize chemical reactions?
involve transfer of one or more electrons
one reactant is displaced by another
reactions can be catoinic or anionic
When do reactants get displaced by another to form the final product?
two or more reactants combine to form a single product
also called synthesis or addition reactions
A + B --> C
substitution, metathesis, ion exchange
ions or bonds exchanged by two compounds to form different compounds
AC + BD --> AD + BC
chemical reactants exchange ions but the oxidation state stays the same
acid base, proton transfer reaction
one compound acquires H+ from another
desynthesis, decombination, deconstruction reaction
reactant is broken down into two or more products
A --> B + C
also called analysis reactions
What is thermal decomposition caused by?
What is electrolytic decomposition caused by?
What are types of the separation process
filtration, crystallization, distillation, and chromatography
mechanical or chemical, usually involve re-organizing a mixture in terms of chemical or physical properties
chemical reaction that absorb heat and exothermic reactions
substances that are consumed during a reaction
What does a balanced equation use?
reactants, products, and coefficients
What is the heat difference between endothermic and exothermic reactions caused by?
bonds forming and breaking
for a chemical reaction to occur, atoms, or molecules have to collide with each other with a certain amount of energy.
if more energy is released when product bonds form than is needed to break the reactant bonds
heat is released and the environmental temperature increases
How are particles in an atoms nucleus bound together?
nuclear force (AKA residual strong force)
when two nuclei or nuclear particles collide which results in the release or absorption of energy and products that are different from the initial particles.
refers to the particles emitted from nuclei a a result of nuclear instability
What are the most common types of radiation?
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