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King Phillip II

King of Spain from 1556- 1598, was a powerful monarch and strong defender of the Catholic faith, started the Spanish Armada, but was defeated

Spanish Armada

the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588, the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.

Sir Walter Raleigh

An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."

Roanoke Island

Island off the coast of North Carolina, site of England's first attempt at a permanent settlement in the Americas, known as the "Lost Colony"; first settlement 100 men who after first difficult winter, returned to England; second settlement led by White -- he left to get provisions, but when he returned the colonists were gone -- only thing left was gatepost with Croatoan carved on it

John White

Roanoke's colony leader who returned to England for more food and tools--when he finally returned to Roanoke the colony had vanished--the only clue he found of Roanoke or the "Lost colony" was the native american tribes name "CROATAN", in 1587 tried to establish Roanoke Island, his first grandchild was born there, Virginia Dare


What was the name of the island near Roanoke colony?, John White saw this word carved onto a post of the Lost Colony


the right to organize settlements in an area, grants given by King James I to groups of merchants to settle in America

The Virginia Company

joint-stock company that established settlements in America for profit, a joint-stock company. investors bought stock, or part ownership, in the company in return for a share of its future profits

joint-stock company

an association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business


first permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay, the name of the second English settlement in North America. It was started in present-day Virginia

Captain John Smith

English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia, said, "He who shall not work shall not eat", English army captain whose strict discipline helped the Jamestown settlement to survive

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.


Elected Representatives to a lawmaking body in the english colonies


mistreatment of people because of their beliefs


A member of the Church of England who settled in North America to follow Christian beliefs in a more "pure" way; They established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630


Protestants who, during the 1600's, wanted to leave the Anglican Church in order to found their own churches, Group of people from England who wanted to separate themselves from the Church of England. Some traveled to North America in search of religious freedom.


one of the colonists from England who sailed to America on the Mayflower and founded the colony of Plymouth in New England in 1620


official recognition of the right of individuals to hold dissenting opinions (especially in religion), The acceptance of different beliefs

proprietary colony

English colony in which the king gave land to proprietors in exchange for a yearly payment

indentured servant

A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years,, a person who is bonded or contracted to work for another for a specified time


a written plan of government, the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government

William Tucker

1st African American born in the colonies, The first African-American man born in the Americas, he was a free man. In 1660, slavery was first recognized by Virginia law.

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts., Established in Jamestown in 1619, is considered the first represtantive government in the New World. It consisted of 22 representatives from 11 districts of colonists

New England Colonies

Massachusets New Hampshire Connecticut and Rhode Island. They had a short growing season long and cold winters, rocky soil and Forests and economy was based on trading shipping and ship building

Anglican Church

the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs), church that King Henry VIII of England creates so that he can marry and divorce as he pleases, Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death

Who was the head of the Anglican Church or the Church of England?

Henry VIII set himself up as head of the church

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.

New York

colony the English peaceably took back from the Dutch, then given to James II, Duke of York and Albany (not yet king), who held almost unlimited power of the colony. Religious tolerance and property protection were promised to the people of New York

Which country originally settled New York?

Holland -- the Dutch

What was the original name of the colony that later became New York?

New Amsterdam

What brought about the change of name for the colony of New York?

settled 1624- originally Dutch colony "New Amsterdam", led by Peter Stuyvesant; 1664- Duke of York ordered to take it over, no force was used, name changed to New York

Manhattan Island

in 1626 the company bought Manhattan from the Manhates people for small quatities of beads and other goods, Bought in 1626 for $24 in beads... becomes largest shipping center, Purchased by the Dutch East India Company from the Manhates for beads and other goods

New Jersey

formed when James II gave part of his land in New York to his friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. The people of New Jersey were granted the right to elect an assembly (Duke of York gives parts to Berkely and Carteret, which goes to Quakers)

New Jersey colony

colony with a diverse population, including Dutch, Swedes, Finns, and Scots, Territory given to Sir John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Territory was diverse religiously and ethnically.

How did the colony of New Jersey begin and what did it promise potential settlers?

middle colony that split from New York when it became too big for the Duke of York to govern; expanded trade, religious and political freedom

How did the colony of Pennsylvania form/why was it given to Penn?

in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers

How did Pennsylvainia get its name?

it was named after William Penn -- means "Penn's Woods"

Who are the Quakers?

English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania


settlement on the Delaware River that became the fastest growing city in the colonies, "city of brotherly love"

Who founded Maryland?

Founded by Lord Baltimore

For what purpose was Maryland founded?

as a safe haven for Catholics - Act of Toleration

What crops were grown in Maryland?

tobacco and corn

Why did the people of Maryland not farm only tobacco?

the crops needed to be rotated to replenish the soil -- also length of time it took to grow tobacco

What was the Mason Dixon Line?

Boundry between Pennsylvania and Maryland, A line between 4 states forming part of the borders of PA. Used as a line to distinguish the free north from the slave south., imaginary line that separated border between new england and middle colonies; became symbolic of the division between the free and the slave states.

What was the Act of Toleration?

a 1649 Maryland law that provided religious freedom for all Christians, Maryland 1649 toleration for all christians; death penalty for atheist and Jews; less toleration than there was before

Did the Act of Toleration work -- was it successful?

no as it required dissenters to register their meeting locations and could not assemble in private homes and allowed freedom of religion for all Christians, but decreed death for non-Christians (death for Jews and atheists

What was Bacon's Rebellion?

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land, an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.

What did Bacon's Rebellion prove?

that an act of revolt against powerful colonial authority would be unsuccessful and resulted in the burning of Jamestown in 1676

How did the Carolinas originate?

1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers.

Why did the Carolinas split?

The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina because the southern region was wealthy while the northern region was mostly poor farmers; southern - large rice plantations with The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolinablack slaves, northern - small self sufficient tobacco farms;

How did slavery begin in the Carolinas?

slavery was introduced immediately because proprietors had investments in the slave trade; was founded by white residents of Barbados, who brought slaves to work on sugar plantations

Which of the Carolinas used slave labor the most?

the southern part due to the large plantations

What was the purpose for Georgia and who founded it?

the buffer colony, the charity colony; founded as a refuge for debtors by philanthropists; founded by James Orglethorpe

What were some of the rules put into place regarding the colony of Georgia?

outlawed slavery at first with small farms which grew into larger plantations; rum was not allowed; Catholics were not allowed;-limit land, no slaves, no alcohol, regulated trade, no Catholics

What was Georgia's role as a Buffer Colony?

1733 - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.

buffer colony

The Georgia colony was built to PROTECT the other British colonies from the Spanish attack.


people demand to get rid of his harsh laws - called him "our perpetual dictator," many of the colonists resented him

What eventually was the outcome of Georgia

it eventually became a royal colony

What was New France?

French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763

Who were Joliet and Marquette, where was their expedition, and what did they discover?

These French explorers traveled through the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River in search for a sea route to Asia, found the Mississippi River, sailed from France to look for the Northwest Passage - explored the Mississippi River - found that the Miss River was not part of the NW Passage-kept detailed notes of their travels

Who were Cavelier and de La Salle and what was their expedition?

They both followed the Miss. River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle claimed the region around the river for the France-He called it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV. De LA Salle, french governor, founded the port of New Orleans near the mouth of the Mississippi River.

Why is there a French influence in Louisiana?

The name Robert de La Salle gave to his claim of the Mississippi River and its surroundings, region named by La Salle in honor of King Louis XIV

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