World History Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (97)
policy of glorifying military power & preparing for war by most European countries, caused by the desire to protect their overseas colonies
agreements to defend another country if threatened
most European countries were competing to build an empire, which increased their sense of rivalry & mistrust
this strong devotion to one's national group or culture led to conflicts, especially in many empires that combined many different ethnic groups
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
France, Great Britain, Russia
the "spark" that set off WWI
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on June 28, 1914 in Bosnia
the chain reaction that led to WWI
Austria declared war on Serbia.
Russia mobilizes on the Austrian & German border.
Germany declares war on Russia & France.
Great Britain declares war on Germany for going through Belgium to get to France
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers (WWI)
Great Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Italy, U.S. (& others)
the deadlocked region of Northern France, where mostly trench warfare was used
the battlefield along the German & Russian border, and was a more mobile type of war
WWI weapons & methods of fighting
poison gas, machine guns, tanks, submarines, trench warfare, etc.
when a country uses all of society's resources to fight the war, including rationing resources, more government control, using propaganda and censoring anti-war sentiments, and including women in the workforce
WWI as a global conflict
Fighting took place not only in Europe, but also in Asia & Africa, where nations would attack one another's colonies. Also, colonies supplied soldiers, weapons or other resources, many with the hopes of being rewarded with their independence.
U.S. officials intercepted a telegram from Germany, stating that Germany would help Mexico reconquer lands lost to the U.S. if Mexico allied with Germany
sinking of the Lusitania
A German U-boat sunk the British passenger ship in 1915, killing 1,200 (128 Am.)
1917 as a shift in the balance of WWI
Russia withdrew from the war after its 1917 revolution, which allowed Germany to focus solely on the Western Front. However, the U.S. entered the war in April, and helped the Allies win the Second Battle of the Marne in France.
how WWI ended
Germany & the Allies signed an armistice (agreement to stop fighting) on November 11, 1918
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
Wilson's proposal for peace included an end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduced militaries, self-determination & a world peace organization
Treaty of Versailles
It stated that Germany was to be punished: it lost territory, was forced to reduce military, made to pay reparations, forced to take full responsibility. It also created a League of Nations to be an international peace association (but had many flaws)
bitterness caused by the Treaty of Versailles
Empires were broken apart, and many countries became mandates (under the control of Br. & Fr. powers).
The Balfour Declaration favored a Jewish homeland in Israel, which caused tension in the Middle East.
The U.S. did not sign the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations.
Germans were bitter over the treaties.
Colonies were bitter about not gaining independence.
Japan & Italy were bitter about not gaining more territory
the costs of WWI
Human costs: nearly 9 million soldiers died (22 million total including civilians), another 21 million wounded
Economic costs: destroyed large amounts of land & resources, estimated at +$330 billion in losses
Power shift: Europe no longer dominant (U.S., Japan)
Political unrest: changes of leadership & governments, including Communism in Russia
Social unrest: colonies will increase movements for independence, sense of insecurity spreads
Russia's problems before & during WWI
economic problems, the Bolsheviks wanted to overthrow the czar through a revolution, lacked industrialization and transportation, and lost millions of lives fighting the war, citizens were starving and angry with the czarina, who was relying on Rasputin for advice on governing the country
Citizen protests grew, and the soldiers and government (Duma) refused to obey Nicholas' order to take back control, so he abdicated his throne
the temporary government formed under the leadership of Aleksander Kerensky that was an unpopular government because it continued Russia's involvement in World War I and didn't do enough to provide food, land and fuel for the peasants
Bolsheviks known as the Red Guard attacked the provisional government, Kerensky fled, and Lenin became the leader of Russia
allowed small-scale capitalism and encouraged foreign investment
Lenin's political changes
Lenin renamed the country the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the Bolsheviks became the Communist Party
India's involvement in WWI
many fought in WWI for the British on the Allied side
leader of India's independence movement
colonial desire for independence during WWI
organized protests and boycotted the colonial power's products and goods
African angry with the results of WWI
lost soldiers during the WWI, were not invited to the post war negotiations, and many colonies were given to other nations instead of being given independence
Peace, Land & Bread
Lenin ended Russia's involvement in World War I, instituted Communism, giving land to the peasants and control of factories to the workers
Colonial involvement in WWI
many fought in the war, provided supplies and support to the colonial powers, thought they would gain independence following WWI
Effects of nationalism on the colonies
caused some nations to stay traditional, while others became more modern following WWI
U.S. economic weaknesses following WWI
1. Uneven distribution of wealth. (Those unable to afford often used credit to buy products or stock, which got them into trouble.)
2. Overproduction by businesses.
3. Less demand for consumer goods.
On October 29, 1929, stock prices collapsed as millions of shares were sold
Effects of the Stock Market Crash
Millions lost their jobs, poverty increased and banks went out of business
U.S. response to the Great Depression
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt instituted many New Deal programs, including public works projects to lower unemployment, and aid programs like welfare. This government spending did help the economy recover, but it wasn't immediate
Economic & political impact of the Great Depression on the world
The U.S. passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, which placed heavy taxes on goods imported to the U.S. This hurt world trade, because other countries did the same and trade slowed.
Political instability grew in many nations, as new governments formed and new extremist political groups & leaders gained control.
form of government in which the person or party in charge has absolute control over all aspects of life
system of government that is based on extreme nationalism
economic and political system in which the government owns the means of production and controls the economy
How Hitler ignored the Treaty of Versailles
By gaining attempting to gain land & rebuild Germany's military
Appeasement of Hitler by Great Britain & France
Both were still dealing with the effects of WWI and wanted to prevent another war.
Similarities in political changes following WWI
Government was often looked to for providing assistance with the social and economic issues of the nation following WWI.
How Hitler defied the Treaty of Versailles
1. He rebuilt the German military, including submarines & warships.
2. He militarized (sent troops into) the Rhineland, which was Germany territory that bordered France.
3. He annexed (joined together) Austria with Germany (Anschluss).
4. He annexed the area known as the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. France & Great Britain used appeasement, or giving in to aggressive demands in order to maintain peace, because they wanted to avoid another war
Hitler's building of alliances
Germany, Italy & Japan joined together in a military alliance called the Axis Powers, and Germany & the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact
Germany, Italy & Japan
Allied Powers (WWII)
Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, Canada, France, China (& more)
fast-moving planes and tanks, followed by massive infantry attacks
Battle of Poland
this German invasion marked the official start of WWII
Battle of Britain
The British never gave in, and eventually Hitler called off the attacks
Bataan Death March
Japanese committed atrocities against prisoners of war in the Pacific
this strategy was used by the German during their battles in the Atlantic
Battle of Stalingrad
the Soviets broke through the German defenses and were able to turn the tide of the war
this strategy was used by the Japanese in their battle in the Pacific
the U.S. strategy of taking over islands not as strongly held by the Japanese to cut off supply lines and to make the best use of Allied troops and supplies
stages of the Holocaust
1. Nuremberg Laws
4. Final Solution
hostility or prejudice against Jews
11 million were killed, including 6 million Jews
the violent attack of the Jewish community in Germany by the Nazis
overcrowded, segregated Jewish areas
the elimination of Jews and other groups through concentration camps and extermination camps
the systematic killing of an entire people
the purpose was to use people for slave-labor
the purpose was to mass murder those deemed "subhuman"
laws that discriminated against Jewish Germans
On June 6, 1944, Allied forces invaded the beaches of Normandy, France, pushing through the German defenses. It was a major victory for the Allies, and they were able to re-take France and force the Germans out
Events leading to the end of WWII in the Pacific
Allied troops were able to take the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa to give them bases closer from which to attack Japan, and then U.S. President Harry S. Truman decided to drop an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Effects of WWII in Europe
major loss of life, displaced persons, extreme economic loss, new governments, rebuilding
Effects of WWII in Japan
dealing with the effects of the atomic bomb, new government, rebuilding
spread of communism following WWII
the Soviets had this goal throughout Eastern Europe (and the world) following WWII
Allied agreements at the Potsdam Conference
#1: Divide Germany into 4 zones of occupation.
#2: Divide Berlin (the capital) into 4 zones of occupation.
#3: Try Nazi leaders for war crimes (Nuremberg Trials).
#4: Plan for Germany to pay reparations for war damages
Conflict among Allied leaders after WWII
The Soviets wanted a "buffer zone" to protect them from another German invasion, so they wanted to keep control of Eastern Europe, but the U.S. & Great Britain wanted the countries of Eastern Europe to be free to choose democracy and to not see Communism spread
an era of tension and hostility between the Soviet Union and the U.S. It included a military rivalry and a struggle for control between communism and capitalist democracy
phrase developed by Winston Churchill to describe the division of Europe he saw as a result of Soviet actions
U.S. pledge to provide economic & military support to those nations opposing Communist threats
U.S. provided $13 billion to help Europe rebuild & recover from the war
plan to resist Soviet aggression in order to contain the spread of communism
In June 1948, the Soviets blocked off West Berlin from all supplies, with the hopes the West would get out. Instead, Western nations organized an airlift, where cargo planes were dropping supplies for the residents. After nearly a year, the Soviets finally called off the blockade
In 1949, the U.S., Canada, and many Western European nations formed a defensive military alliance
In response to NATO, the Soviets and it's satellites formed this in 1955
The U.S., with UN support, backed the southern non-Communists when the North, backed by the Soviet Union, attacked
The U.S. feared the spread of communism, and tried to back the non-communist leader of the South and fight the communist rebels
This was built to separate the non-communist West from the communist East of the city
Cuban Missile Crisis
The USSR placed nuclear weapons in Cuba, and the US demanded their withdrawal
nations that were considered to be developing and not yet aligned with either superpower
First World nations
the term used to describe the U.S. and it's allies post-WWII
Second World nations
the term used to describe the USSR and it's satellites post-WWII
Third World nations
the term used to describe nonaligned nations, many with struggling economies and lacked industrialization
political changes in Western Europe during the Cold War
many focused on democratic principles during the Cold War
the economic system of the USSR & its satellites, where the government controls all aspects of the economy
Soviet policy to eliminate any traces of Stalin throughout the Soviet Union
fall of the Berlin Wall
this event signaled the end of the Cold War
collapse of the Soviet Union
The republics that made up the USSR began declaring independence in 1990, and leaders like Mikhail Gorbachev & Boris Yeltsin favored reforms
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