Which of the following was NOT a challenge for survival of the first land plants?
a) sources of water b) sperm transfer d) desiccation e) animal predation f) lack of sunlight
The following are all adaptations in plants to life on land except...
a) tracheids b) reduced gametophyte generation c) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes d) cuticles e) multicellular, dependent embryos
Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?
a) eggs and sperm of byrophytes swim toward one another b) bryophytes are limited to asexual reproduction c) embryophytes are small because they are in an early developmental stage d) both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia e) gametangia protect gametes from excess water
The functional role of sporopollenin is primarily to...
a) provide nutrients to spores b) make spores less dense and able to disperse more readily c) reduce dehydration d) repel toxic chemicals
Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes?"
a) Charophycea b) Bryophyta c) Viridiplantae d) Plantae e) Pterophyta
Which of the following traits was most important to enabling the first plants to move onto land?
a) the development of sporopollenin to prevent the desiccation of zygotes b) peroxisome enzymes that minimize losses from photorespiration c) apical meristems d) alternation of generations
The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always ______.
a) is larger and more conspicuous than the haploid stage b) develops from a spore c) produces eggs and sperm d) produces spores e) is called the gametophyte
Which of the following is true to the life cycle of mosses?
a) the growing embryo gives rise to the gametophyte b) the haploid generation grows on the sporophyte generation c) the sporophyte generation is dominant d) spores are primarily distributed by water currents e) antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes
In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition?
a) Bryophyta b) Pterophyta and Bryophyta c) Pterophyta, Bryophyta, and horsetail d) horsetail (Equisetum) e) Pterophyta
Mitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root makes which of the following more possible?
a) increase of the aboveground stem b) effective lateral growth of the stem c) increased number of chloroplasts in roots d) decreased absorption of mineral nutrients e) increased absorption of CO2
Which event during the evolution of land plants probably made the synthesis of secondary compounds most beneficial?
a) the reverse-greenhouse effect during the Carboniferous period b) the rise of wind pollination c) the association of the roots of land plants with fungi d) the rise of herbivory
Arrange the following terms from most inclusive to least inclusive... 1. Embryophytes 2. green plants 3. seedless vascular plants 4. ferns 5. tracheophytes
a) 2,1,5,3,4 b) 1,2,5,3,4 c) 2,1,5,4,3 d) 1,4,2,5,3
An alignment of cytoskeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of a dividing plant cell.
a durable polymer that covers exposed zygotes of charophyte algae and forms the walls of plant spores, preventing them from drying out.
alternation of generations
A life cycle that alternates between a sexual stage (gametophyte) and an asexual stage (sporophyte)
Haploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism
Diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism
placental transfer cells
A plant cell that enhances the transfer of nutrients from parent to embryo
alternate name for land plants that refers to their shared derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
multicellular organs that produce spores
diploid cells that undergo meiosis to generate haploid spores
The reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of the male antheridium and female archegonium; a multichambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed.
female reproductive part of a nonvascular plant
male gametangia. produce and release sperm into the environment.
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
Nonvascular plants - examples are liverworms, hornworts, and mosses.
mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination
Thread like structures that anchor non vascular plants to the ground (mosses and liverworts)
absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte
stalk of a moss capsule
A ring of interlocking, tooth-like structures on the upper part of a moss capsule (sporangium), often specialized for gradual spore discharge.
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
Extensive deposits of undecayed organic material formed primarily from the wetland moss Sphagnum.
Most bryophytes, such as mosses, differ from all other plants in that they _____.
a) have cones but no seeds b) do not produce flowers c) have flagellated sperm d) lack true leaves and roots e) produce spores
In contrast to bryophytes, in vascular plants the dominant stage of the life cycle is the _____.
a) sporophyte b) gametophyte c) archegonium d) spore e) antheridium
What evolutionary development allowed plants to grow tall?
a) lignified vascular tissue b) the waxy cuticle c) leaves d) rhizoids e) sporophylls
During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of _____ produced vast quantities of organic matter, which was buried and later became coal.
a) giant mosses b) gymnosperms c) ferns and other seedless plants d) gymnosperms and early angiosperms e) early angiosperms
Which of the following characteristics helped seedless plants better adapt to life on land?
a) photosystem II b) a chitinous cuticle c) an unbranched sporophyte d) a dominant gametophyte e) stomata
Which of the following is true of seedless vascular plants?
a) Extant seedless vascular plants are larger than the extinct varieties. b) They produce many spores, which are really the same as seeds. c)Whole forests were dominated by large, seedless vascular plants during the Carboniferous period. d)The gametophyte is the dominant generation. e) Sphagnum is an economically and ecologically important example
If humans had been present to build log structures during the Carboniferous period (they weren't), which plant types would have been suitable sources of logs?
a) horsetails and bryophytes b) whisk ferns and epiphytes c) lycophytes and bryophytes d) ferns, horsetails, and lycophytes e) charophytes, bryophytes, and gymnosperms
In plants, which of the following are produced by meiosis?
a) diploid spores b) haploid spores c) haploid gametes d) diploid gametes e) haploid sporophytes
Microphylls are found in which plant group?
a) ferns b) liverworts c) mosses d) lycophytes e) hornworts
Which of the following is a land plant that has flagellated sperm and a sporophyte-dominated life cycle?
a) charophyte b) moss c) fern d) liverwort e) hornwort
Suppose an efficient conducting system evolved in a moss that could transport water and other materials as high as a tall tree. Which of the following statements about "trees" of such a species would not be true?
a) Individuals would probably compete more effectively for access to light. b) Fertilization would probably be more difficult. c) Spore dispersal distances would probably increase. d) Females could produce only one archegonium. e) Unless its body parts were strengthened, such a "tree" would probably flop over.
Select the correct statement about charophytes, a taxon of green algae.
a) Living charophytes are the algal ancestors of land plants. b) Charophytes and land plants share four distinctive traits. c) Charophytes are embryophytes.
Select the correct statement about plant life cycles.
a) Meiosis in plant life cycles is a sexual process, producing gametes. b) Over evolutionary time, the sporophyte has replaced the gametophyte in plant life cycles. c) At some point in the life cycle of all plants, the sporophyte is dependent on its gametophyte parent.
Select the correct statement contrasting gametophytes and sporophytes.
a) Sporophytes are larger than gametophytes. b) Sporophytes are vascular, whereas gametophytes are nonvascular. c) Sporophytes are diploid, whereas gametophytes are haploid.
Select the correct statement about the life cycle of a fern.
a) Plant sporophytes grow from haploid spores. b) In ferns, meiosis results in the formation of egg and sperm cells. c) Plant gametophytes are haploid multicellular bodies.
When you look at a pine or maple tree, the plant you see is a _____.
a) diploid gametophyte b) diploid sporophyte c) haploid gametophyte d) triploid endosperm e) haploid sporophyte
All seed plants _____.
a) are heterosporous b) produce flowers c) are nonvascular d) produce antheridia and archegonia on the same gametophyte e) exhibit a dominant gametophyte generation
The adaptation that made possible the colonization of dry land environments by seed plants is most likely the result of the evolution of _____.
a) heterospory b) ovules c) cones d) pollen e) sporophylls
Which group is noted for the independence of gametophyte and sporophyte generations from each other?
a) angiosperms b) gymnosperms c) ferns d) mosses, hornworts, and liverworts e) charophytes
The seed coat's most important function is to provide
a) protection for the embryo. b) the means for dispersal. c) a nutrient supply for the embryo. d) dormancy. e) a nonstressful environment for the megasporangium.
In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics is unique to the seed-producing plants?
a) sporopollenin b) pollen c) use of air currents as a dispersal agent d) megaphylls e) lignin present in cell walls
Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits originated. 1. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence 2. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence 3. gametophyte dominance, sporophyte dependence
a) 2 → 3 → 1 b) 1 → 2 → 3 c) 2 → 1 → 3 d) 3 → 2 → 1 e) 3 → 1 → 2
In terms of alternation of generations, the internal parts of the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a
a) fern sporophyte. b) moss sporophyte. c) fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia. d) hermaphroditic fern gametophyte. e) moss gametophyte bearing both male and female gametangia.
Which of the following is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the typical spore?
a) waxy cuticle b) ability to be dispersed c) integument(s) d) an internal reservoir of liquid water e) a different type of sporopollenin
A researcher has developed two stains for use with seed plants. One stains sporophyte tissue blue; the other stains gametophyte tissue red. If the researcher exposes pollen grains to both stains, and then rinses away the excess stain, what should occur?
a) The pollen grains will be pure blue. b) Insofar as the pollen grains are independent of the plant that produced them, they will not absorb either stain. c) The pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors. d) The pollen grains will have blue interiors and red exteriors. e) The pollen grains will be pure red.
In gymnosperms megaspores develop into _____ .
a) female gametophytes b) ovulate cones c) pollen grains d) male gametophytes e) female sporophytes
In pine, the embryo develops within the _____.
a) female gametophyte b) staminate cone c) male gametophyte d) macrogametophyte e) microsporophyll
Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant (living) ferns because they
a) are woody. b) have macrophylls. e) have spores. d) have pollen. e) have sporophylls.
Which of the following statements is true of the pine life cycle?
a) Conifer pollen grains contain male gametophytes. b) Double fertilization is a relatively common phenomenon. c) The pine tree is a gametophyte. d) Male and female gametophytes are in close proximity during gamete synthesis. e) Cones are homologous to the capsules of moss plants
Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear during development, assuming that fertilization occurs? 1. sporophyte embryo 2. female gametophyte 3. egg cell 4. megaspore
Which of the following can be found in gymnosperms?
a) fruits b) pollen c) triploid endosperm d) nonfertile flower parts e) carpels
Reptilian embryos are protected from desiccation by a leathery shell. Similarly, which pair of structures protects seed plants' embryos and male gametophytes, respectively, from desiccation?
a) ovules-waxy cuticle b) integuments-sporopollenin c) ovaries-filaments d) fruits-stamens e) pollen grains-waxy cuticle
consists of an embryo and its food supply, surrounded by a protective coating
Layer of sporophyte tissue that contributes to the structure of an ovule of a seed plant.
A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.
male gametophyte in seed plants
transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure
an ancestral fossil type from which modern gymnosperms are thought to have derived
gymnosperm; cone-bearing plants; most are evergreen
The major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms comes from the _____.
a) presence or absence of vascular structures b) dominance or lack of dominance of the sporophyte generation c) production of microspores versus megaspores d) presence or absence of alternation of generations e) presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovule
Angiosperms are different from all other plants because only they have _____.
a) a vascular system b) flowers c) a life cycle that involves alternation of generations d) seeds e) a sporophyte phase
Unlike most angiosperms, grasses are pollinated by wind. As a consequence, some unnecessary parts of grass flowers have almost disappeared. Which of the following parts would you expect to be most reduced in a grass flower?
a) anthers b) petals c) carpels d) ovaries e) stamens
Which of the following is a characteristic of all angiosperms?
a) double internal fertilization b) ovules that are not contained within ovaries c) free-living gametophytes d) carpels that contain microsporangia e) complete reliance on wind as the pollinating agent
Which of the following is true concerning flowering plants?
a) The gametophyte generation is dominant. b) The flower includes sporophyte tissue. c) The sporophyte generation consists of relatively few cells within the flower. d) The sporophyte generation is not photosynthetic. e) The gametophyte generation is what we see when looking at a large plant.
Carpels and stamens are
a) spores. b) modified sporophylls. c) gametes. d) sporophyte plants in their own right. e) gametophyte plants in their own right.
Which of the following is a true statement about angiosperm carpels?
a) Carpels surround and nourish the female gametophyte. b) Carpels consist of highly modified microsporangia. c) Carpels are structures that directly produce male gametes. d) Carpels are features of the gametophyte generation. e) Carpels consist of anther and stamen.
Angiosperm double fertilization is so-called because it features the formation of
a) two embryos from one egg and two sperm cells. b) one embryo from one egg fertilized by two sperm cells. c) one embryo from two eggs fertilized by a single sperm cell. d) two embryos from two sperm cells and two eggs. e) one embryo involving one sperm cell and an endosperm involving a second sperm cell.
Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed?
a) ovary b) stamen c) ovule d) fruit
Human survival literally depends on the produce of _____.
a) gymnosperms b) gnetophytes c) cycads d) ginkgoes e) angiosperms
What is the greatest threat to plant diversity?
a) pathogenic fungi b) insects c) grazing and browsing by animals d) competition with other plants e) human population growth
Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?
a) packed into pollen sacs within the anthers found on a stamen b) in the style of a flower c) enclosed in the stigma of a flower d) within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower e) inside the tip of a pollen tube
A fruit is most commonly
a) a modified root. b) a mature ovary. c) a thickened style. d) a mature female gametophyte. e) an enlarged ovule.
Which of the following is not a characteristic that distinguishes gymnosperms and angiosperms from other plants?
a) pollen b) ovules c) dependent gametophytes d) alternation of generations e) integuments
Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except
a) seeds. b) ovaries. c) vascular tissue. d) ovules. e) pollen.
What are the products of meiosis in the life cycle of a seed plant?
a) Megaspores or microspores b) Sperm or eggs c) Male or female gametophytes
Select the correct statement describing the life cycle of angiosperms.
a) Double fertilization in the life cycle of seed plants results in the production of a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm nucleus. b) In angiosperm life cycles, the female gametophyte is the ovule. c) The life cycle of seed plants does not include a gametophyte generation
Which of these structures is a separate generation from the plant sporophyte?
a) A male gametophyte within a pollen grain b) The ovule c) A seed
In which of the following pairs do the structures play comparable roles in the plant and animal life cycles?
a) A plant seed and a bird egg b) A plant sporophyte and an adult animal c) The male gametophyte of a plant and the testes of an animal