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Honors Chemistry Exam Review
Terms in this set (148)
A homogeneous mixture that can contain solids, liquids, or gases. Contains small particles like ions or molecules and are transparent. They do not separate, can't be filtered, and don't scatter light.
The substance that dissolves a solute to form a solution. The most plentiful substance in the solution.
A heterogeneous mixture of medium sized particles. They can't be filtered, but can be separated by semipermeable membranes. They scatter light (Tyndall effect). Examples are fog, whipped cream, milk, cheese, and pearls.
Describes two liquids that are soluble in each other.
Describes two liquids that can be mixed together but separate shortly after you stop mixing them.
Describes a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given solvent.
One or more substances dissolved in a solution.
The process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution when the solute and solvent particles come in contact with each other.
Contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure. If more solute is added it will sink to the bottom.
Contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature. When more solute is added extra particles precipitate.
A type of heterogeneous mixture whose large particles settle out over time and can be separated by filtration. Examples are clay, cooking oil, and muddy water.
The energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount.
The number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution.
Contains less dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution. Is able to dissolve more solute.
The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure. Affected by temperature, surface area, agitation, and pressure for gases.
Boiling Point Elevation
The temperature difference between a solution's boiling point and a pure solvent's boiling point.
A physical property of a solution that depends on the number (not identity) of the dissolved solute particles. Depends on the concentration of solute particles.
A solution having a low concentration of solute. Has small numbers of solute particles.
A type of colloid that is a dispersion of small droplets of one liquid in another in which it is not soluble or miscible.
An ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts electricity. Depresses freezing point and elevates boiling point of a solvent. They break apart into ions and have a significant effect on colligative properties due to more particles (ions are small).
Freezing Point Depression
The difference in temperature between a solution's freezing point and the freezing of its pure solvent.
The ratio of the number of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent.
The ratio of the moles of a solute to the total number of moles of solvent and solute.
A substance hat has little tendency to become a gas under existing conditions. Raises the boiling point and lowers the freezing point. Lowers a solvent's vapor pressure.
Energy due to motion. Increases as temperature increases because particles are moving faster.
A space entirely devoid of matter. No particles, no pressure.
Unit used to measure air pressure. Is equal to 760 mm Hg (torr) or 101.3 kilopascals (kPa). Decreases as altitude increases.
Temperature at which there is no energy or particle movement. Reached at 0°K or -273°C.
The change from a liquid to a gas/vapor from boiling at a liquid's boiling point. A liquid absorbs energy from its surroundings.
Vaporization on a surface of liquid without boiling. Going from a liquid to gas without boiling. Particles escape from the surface of a non boiling liquid to the gas state.
Pressure of gas above a liquid. Decreases as altitude increases. Increases as temperature increases (more particles are in the gas phase). Decreases as solute is added to a pure solvent.
When the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are the same. Concentration of reactants and products do not have to be equal.
Liquid that evaporates easily because it wants to be in vapor phase.
Boiling Point (Vaporization Point)
Temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas/vapor. Decreases as altitude increases. Decreases at a low external pressure and increases at a high external pressure. Increases as attractive forces between liquid molecules increase due to greater energy needed.
Normal boiling and melting points occur at this pressure.
Temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.
Temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid.
Compounds that have high melting points because their particles are strongly attracted to one another so it takes more energy to separate (melt) them. Electrolytes are these types of compounds.
Compounds that have low melting points. Their electrons are shared in covalent bonds. Their Lewis structures show the arrangement of electrons in covalent molecules.
A solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, geometric structure. 7 groups that depend on arrangement of particles.
A repeating pattern of atoms that make up a whole crystal.
Two or more forms of the same element with different properties. Carbon is an example of this.
A solid that lacks definite shape. Rubber glass is an example of this and so is a supercooled liquid. Their particles occur in a random pattern.
Measures atmospheric pressure.
Measures vapor pressure.
State of matter that has particles in fast, random, constant, and fluid motion. Have no particle volume. They take the volume and shape of their container. Their particles can flow and are in motion. State of matter with highest entropy.
State of matter that is fluid (particles can flow). Particles are closer together than in a gas and are more dense than gas. This is a condensed state. Particles have constant volume and take the shape of their container. Particles are in motion. State of matter with second highest entropy.
State of matter that is condensed state. Has orderly arrangements (crystals) and fixed locations. They have the strongest intermolecular forces between their particles. Their particles cannot flow but are in motion through vibration. State of matter with the lowest entropy.
Phase change from a gas to a solid.
Phase change from a solid to a gas.
Phase change from a gas to a liquid.
Phase change from a liquid to a solid.
Enthalpy of Vaporization
The amount of heat energy needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point at a constant pressure. Is higher when the attraction of particles is stronger.
Enthalpy of Fusion
The amount of heat energy required to melt one mole of solid at its melting point.
A graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance can exist.
Indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, or vapor of the substances can coexist at equilibrium. Where a substance exists in all three states of matter.
A change in volume in response to a change in pressure.
States that pressure and volume have an inverse relationship. At a constant temperature, the volume of a gas increases as pressure decreases and vice versa. P1V1=P2V2
States that temperature and volume have a direct relationship. At a constant pressure, the volume of a gas increases as temperature increases and vice versa. V1T2=V2T1
States that temperature and pressure have a direct relationship. At a constant volume, the pressure of a gas increases as temperature increases and vice versa. P1T2=P2T1
Combined Gas Law
A law combining Boyle's, Charles's, and Gay-Lussac's laws that states the relationship among pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas.
Ideal Gas Law
Describes the physical behavior of an ideal gas in terms of pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), and number of moles of gas (n). PV=nRT
A gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory. At high pressures and low temperatures, gases are non-ideal. They most resemble ideal gases at low pressure and high temperature. They have volume and attractive forces between their particles.
The pressure of each gas in a mixture.
The movement of one material through another from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion. Rates of this are directly related to velocities of particles.
A process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening. Molecules of low mass do this faster than molecules of high mass. Rates of this are directly related to velocities of particles.
Point at which a liquid changes to a gas because of such high temperatures and high pressures.
The study of the energy changes in chemical reactions.
The average kinetic energy of particles in an object. As this increases, it increases solubility of liquids and solids but decreases solubility of gases.
A change in which a system's internal energy increased. Energy is absorbed. q is positive.
A change in which a system's internal energy decreases. Energy is released. q is negative.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree celsius. Same for all substances.
Energy that flows from warmer to cooler objects. The energy transferred between samples of matter because of a difference in their temperatures.
Standard heat of formation
The change in heat that accompanies the formation of one mole of the compound in its standard state from its elements in their standard states.
The SI unit of heat. Is equal to .239 calories.
Energy that is stored (in chemical bonds).
Law of conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. Energy of universe is conserved (energy released by a system is absorbed by the surroundings and vice versa).
The heat content of a system at constant pressure.
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1ºC. Is equal to 4.184 Joules.
The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of an object exactly 1ºC. Depends on amount of substance present. Increases with increasing mass.
States that if you can add two or more thermochemical equations to produce a final equation for a reaction, then the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual reactions is the enthalpy change for the final reaction.
A measure of the number of possible ways that the energy of a system can be distributed. A measure of disorder.
The energy available to do work.
Capacity for doing work or supplying heat. Has neither mass nor volume.
Any physical or chemical change that once begun, occurs with no outside intervention. In order for this to occur, free energy must be negative.
A device that is used to measure the amount of heat released or absorbed during a physical or chemical process.
Heat of combustion
The enthalpy change for the complete burning of one mole of the substance.
A chemical reaction in which the products can react to re-form the reactants.
When the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. Reactant and product concentrations are constant.
Equilibrium constant (K)
The ratio of the product of the concentrations of substances formed at equilibrium to the product of the concentrations of reacting substances. If K is large products are favored, if small reactants are favored.
Le Chatelier's Principle
If a system at equilibrium is subjected to a stress, the equilibrium is shifted in the direction that tends to relieve the stress and reach a new equilibrium.
Any change in temperature, concentration, or pressure put upon a system at equilibrium.
An increase in the rate of either the forward or reverse rxn.
Substances that increase the reaction rate without being consumed. They lower the activation energy for the reaction so it can reach equilibrium faster. They have no effect on equilibrium amounts or K.
Equilibrium that occurs during a phase change. When the rate of phase changes are equal.
Equilibrium that occurs at a solution's saturation point. Rate of dissolving equals the rate of crystallization.
States that atoms, ions, and molecules must collide in order to react. Effective collisions occur when particles collide have the proper amount of energy and the correct orientation.
The complete sequence of elementary steps that makes up a complex reaction.
A substance produced in one elementary step of a complex reaction and consumed in a subsequent elementary step. They do not appear in the net chemical equation.
As this increases, the reaction rate increases due to greater speed (more collisions) and greater average kinetic energy (particles collide with more energy). As a stress, when this increases at equilibrium, the reaction shifts away from the side containing heat.
As this increases, the reaction rate of gases increases due to decreasing volume which decreases space between particles (more collisions). As a stress, when this increases at equilibrium, the reaction shifts to the side with the least number of gas molecules.
A measure of how much solute is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent or solution. As this increases, the reaction rate increases due to less space with more particles (more collisions). As a stress, when this increases at equilibrium, the reaction shifts away from the increase to use up the excess.
The highest energy point of a reaction where the full rearrangement of reactants occurs. Also known as transition state. The unstable arrangement of reactants.
The minimum amount of energy required by reactants to form the activated complex and lead to a reaction.
Expresses the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the concentration of reactants at a given temperature.
Defines how the rate is affected by the concentration of a reactant. The higher this is, the more the rate of a chemical reaction is affected.
Reaction rate (rate of reaction)
The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of time. Increases as concentration, temperature, and surface area increase.
Substances that react fast because they are small and have less bonds to break and require less steps.
Substances that react slowly because they are large and have more bonds to break and require more steps.
A solution that has more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions. Has a low pH of 6.9 or below. Taste sour and turns blue litmus paper red. Conducts electricity. Proton (hydrogen-ion) donor. Reacts with active metals to form H2.
An acid that ionizes completely or almost completely in aqueous solutions. They are strong electrolytes. Examples: HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HF, lemon juice, gastric acid.
An acid that ionizes only partially in dilute aqueous solution. They are weak electrolytes. Examples: vinegar, carbonic acid, citric acid.
A solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions. Has a high pH of 7.1 to 14. Taste bitter and is corrosive and slippery (like soap or bleach). Turns red litmus paper blue. Conducts electricity. Proton (hydrogen-ion) acceptor.
A base that dissociates entirely or almost entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. They are strong electrolytes. Examples: drano, NaOH, KOH.
A base that ionizes only partially in dilute aqueous solution to form the conjugate acid of the base and hydroxide ion. They are weak electrolytes. Examples: deodorant, ammonia, soaps, shampoos, antacids.
A substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes (breaks up) to produce hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution.
A substance that contains a hydroxide group and dissociates to produce a hydroxide ion in aqueous solution.
The particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion.
The particle that is formed when an acid donates a hydrogen ion.
The process in which an acid-base neutralization reaction is used to determine the concentration of a solution of unknown concentration. Finds the molarity of a known amount of acid or base.
A hydrogen ion that has a water molecule attached to it by a covalent bond. It can be used interchangeably with H+ because it is just a hydrated H+.
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
The negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration.
Chemical dyes who's colors are affected by acidic and basic solutions.
A base that accepts a hydrogen ion. AKA Bronsted-Lowry base.
An acid that donates a hydrogen ion to a base. AKA Bronsted-Lowry acid.
A chemical compound with the formula C₂₀H₁₄O₄. It is used as an indicator in acid-base titrations.
An electron-pair acceptor.
An electron-pair donor.
A reaction in which an acid and a base in an aqueous solution react to produce a salt and water. It is a double-replacement reaction.
Conjugate acid-base pair
Consists of two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single hydrogen ion. A proton is transferred.
An acid that can donate only one hydrogen ion.
Describes water and other substances that can act as both acids and bases.
A solution of known concentration used to titrate a solid of unknown concentration. Also called titrant.
The point at which moles of H+ ion from the acid equal moles of OH- ion from the base.
The point at which the indicator used in a titrant changes color.
Force exerted on a surface. Increases as temperature increases. Decreases as altitude increases.
Kinetic Molecular Theory
States that all states of matter have particles that are in motion. The most significant difference between gases and liquids is the distance between their particles. Collisions between gas particles are elastic and a gas particle is not significantly attracted or repelled by other gas particles.
Solubility Constant (Ksp)
An equilibrium constant for the dissolving of a sparingly soluble ionic compound in water. If this is low, then a substance is not very soluble. If this is large, the salt favors the forward process (dissociation) and is soluble.
A mixture that is uniform throughout. Also known as a solution.
A mixture that is not uniform throughout and has distinct parts.
An electrolyte that does not ionize fully. Conducts electricity poorly and has a small amount of ions.
An electrolyte than ionizes fully or almost completely. Conduct electricity well and have large amounts of ions.
A solution that has a large numbers of solute particles dissolved in solvent.
Rate determining step
The slowest step of a reaction that has the highest activation energy.
Avagadro's number of molecules of a compound. It is the SI unit for the amount of a substance.
The study of quantitative relationships between the amounts of reactants used and products formed by a chemical reaction. Based on the law of conservation of mass.
A measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow. Affected by the size and shape of particles, and increases as the temperature decreases and as intermolecular forces increase.
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