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Chapter 5 Additional Notes
Terms in this set (35)
Motivation Theories Classified into 3 theories
Motivation and Work Behavior
1. Internal, 2. Process, 3. External Theories. 1. Internal Theory Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Variable within the individual that leads to motivation and behavior. 2. Process Theory Emphasizes the nature of interaction between the individual and the environment. 3. External theory of motivation focuses on the elements in the environment, and includes the consequences of behavior as the basis for understanding and explaining people's behavior at work. Understanding motivation, behavior, and performance; we must consider three elements of the work situation= 1. The individual, 2. The job, and 3. The work environment.---as well as how these elements interact.
Max Weber German Sociologist Internal Needs
The meaning of work lies not in the work itself but in its deeper potential for contributing to a person's ultimate salvation. The "Protestant Ethic". His Foundations were inn Calvinist thought. As the fuel for human industriousness encouraged hard work on the grounds that prosperous workers were more likely to find a place in heaven.
Sigmund Freud's more complex motivational theory
A person's organizational life was found on the compulsion to work and the power of love. This psychoanalytic approach can help explain irrational and self-destructive behaviors such as suicide, or workplace violence. Analyzing a person's unconscious needs and motives can help us understand such traumatic work events. It also helps explain deviant behavior in the workplace.
Freud's subsequent need theories of motivations
People's deeper feelings transcend culture with most people caring deeply about the same few feelings. Motivating factors include: Trust, Respect of their supervisors, Fair compensation. Matching ethics between individuals and organizations as well as a match between their skills and job. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION varies by the individual. Managers who are more supportive and less controlling appear to elicit more intrinsic motivation from their employees.
Economic assumptions emphasize financial incentives. Adam Smith, believed a person's self-interest was determined by GOD, not government. Free Enterprise system, formulating the invisible hand and the free market to explain motivation for behavior.
Power of Love, Compulsion to work. Trust, Respect of their supervisors, Fair compensation. Matching ethics between individuals and organizations as well as a match between their skills and job.
Invisible Hand- Adam Smith
Refers to the unseen forces of a free market system that shape the most efficient use of people, money, and resources for productive ends. Employees are most productive when motivated by self-interest.
Collective Wealth Adam Smith
Technology and labor efficiency are two ways of promoting greater collective wealth. Smith believed that productivity of a nation's labor force determined its wealth. More efficient labor yields greater abundance for the nation.
Founder of Scientific management. Goal was to change the relationship between labor and management from one of conflict to cooperation. Believed basis of conflict with division of the profits--labor and management should work together to enlarge total profits.
Differential piece rate systems of pay
Taylor and Smith's Modern management practices, such as employee recognition programs, flexible benefit packages, and stock ownership plans stem from their original theories. Walmart training and loyalty exercises reduces turnovers and builds commitment.
Recognizes others interests as well.
Maslow's need Hierarchy --Five categories of Need. He conceptually derived this need category from early thoughts of William James and John Dewey, coupled with psychodynamic thinking of Freud and Alfred Adler
1. Physiological Needs, 2. Safety and Security Needs 3, Love (social) Needs, 4, Esteem needs, 5. Self-actualization needs.
Maslow's need Hierarchy Progression Hypothesis
A person progresses to the next higher level of need as a source of motivation. An ergonomic work space, can fill physiological needs by making employees comfortable. Security need could be filled with a good retirement plan.
Douglas MacGregor Grouped Needs to Explain Motivation
Physiological and safety needs as lower order needs. AND, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs as upper-order needs. THEORY X is LOWER ORDER. THEORY Y. HIGHER ORDER. Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise--money, materials, equipment, people---in the interest of economic ends. Whole Foods founder and CEO John Mackey uses Maslow's hierarchy of needs in motivating employees.
Alderfer, Clayton ERG Theory
ERG, EXISTENCE, Physiological and Physical safety-- RELATEDNESS, Interpersonal Safety, Love, Esteem--GROWTH, Self-Actualization and Self Esteem. REGRESSION HYPOTHESIS: When people are frustrated, they can regress to the next lower level and intensify their desire to gratify those needs. Thus ERG explains both progressive need gratification and regression when people face frustration.
David McCLelland Need Theory--Achievement Learned or Acquired Needs--Murray Thematic Apperception Test
People with high NEED ACHIEVEMENT perform better than those lacking this need. such individuals share these three characteristics: 1. They set goals that are moderately difficult, yet achievable. 2. They like to receive feedback toward their progress on these goals. 3. They do not like having external events or other people interfere with their progress toward the goals. In addition---1. Hope and plan for success. 2. May be quite content to work alone or with other people, whichever is appropriate for the task. 3.Like being very good at what they do and tend to develop expertise and competence in their chosen endeavors. Achievement tendencies highest in U.S. and lowest in Japan, Hungary--collectivist society.
David McCLelland Need Theory--POWER
Need for power is interpersonal because it involves influences over other people. Socialized power-benefit of many--constructive force. Personalized power--individual gain--disruptive or destructive. best managers--high need for socialized power.
David McCLelland Need Theory--Affiliation
Motivated to express emotions to one another and expect them to do the same. Find conflicts disturbing and willing to work through barriers to bring closeness. MURRAY'S MANIFEST NEED FOR AUTONOMY. This is the desire for independence and freedom from constraints. These people prefer to work alone. Like rules, regulations and procedures.
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Motivation
Frederick Herzberg Engineers & Accountants, Two incidents; one, positive, one negative. Herzberg and his colleagues believed people had two sets of needs, 1. Avoiding pain; 2. Desire for psychological growth. 1 being Hygiene Factor, 2. Being Motivation Factor.
Job Enrichment Motivation Factors
Building motivation factors into a job and, creates job satisfaction. Responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement and the work itself. When factors are present, worker's effort and performance improve. Stock options added as compensation package. When factors not present---neutrality.
Herzberg's, Hygiene Factors
Absent or insufficient Hygiene factors result in job dissatisfaction. Company policy and administration, technical supervision, interpersonal relations with one's supervisor, working conditions, salary, and status. Good hygiene factors are not necessary to promote psychological growth or human development, but are necessary to prevent job dissatisfaction. Even if absent, employees may still be motivated to perform well if MOTIVATION FACTORS ARE PRESENT. FIRST, H F are important to a certain level but beyond that threshold are not important. SECOND, The presence of motivation factors is essential to enhancing employee motivation at work.
Critique of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
1. A factor doesn't fit into either category, 2. Does not account for individual differences; age, sex, social status. Education or Occupation level 3. Intrinsic job factors like workflow process may be more important in determining satisfaction or dissatisfaction on the job. 4. Much of the supporting data for the theory is based on the CRITICAL-INCIDENT TECHNIQUE. Despite the critiques, Herzberg's was the first motivation theory developed specifically to predict motivation in work settings, thus having important implications for the design of work.
Two new ideas in Motivation--1. Eustress, Strength & Hope.
ESH comes from the new discipline of Positive Organization Behavior. Distress--a negative response such as frustration or fear, which leads to unhealthy and unproductive results. or Eustress, a positive response to challenges that generates energy and motivates an individual to achieve. Leads us to invest in strengths, find meaning in work, display courage, and principled action, and draw on positive emotions at work---encourages optimism, hope, and health at work. The individuals interpretation or response to events. Eustress is a healthy and positive motivational force for individuals who harness its energy for productive work and organizational contributions.
Two new ideas in Motivation-- 2. Positive Energy and full engagement. Jim Loehr's
Lesson's learned from professional athlete's. The central tenets are that an individual should manage energy rather than time and should strategically disengage from certain activities to balance the power of full engagement. Managers should help employees learn to manage their energy so that they can build positive energy and capacity for work.
A social exchange process approach to motivation that focuses on the interaction between an individual and the environment. In contrast to needs theories based on internal motivation, equity theory is concerned with the social processed that influence motivation and behavior.
Equity Theory Amitai Etzioni
Developed three categories of exchange relationships that people have with organizations: 1. Committed, High positive intensity. Involvement with a religious group. 2. Calculated, have low positive or low negative intensity. 3. Alienated have high negative intensity. Incarcerated in a prison.
Equity Theory Amitai Etzioni Demands and Contributions
Calculated involvements are based on the notion of social exchange in which each party demands certain things of the other and contributes accordingly to the exchange. Business partnerships and commercial deals are both calculated involvements. When both parties benefit, the relationship has a positive orientation. When losses occur or conflicts arise, the relationship has a negative orientation.
When employees are well taken care of by the company, they take care of the business even in very difficult times.
Each party contributes to the relationship. The contributions are the basis for satisfying the demands expressed by the other party.
Stacy Adams Theory of Inequity
People are motivated when they find themselves in a situation of inequity or unfairness. One drawback of Adams theory is that it does not provide a way of determining whether some inputs or some outcomes are more important than others.
Resolution of Inequity Adams, Seven basic strategies
1. Alter person's outcomes. 2. Alter the persons inputs. 3. Alter the comparison other's outcomes. 4. Comparison other's inputs. 5. change who is used as a comparison other. 6. Rationalize the inequality. 7. Leave the organizational situation. One study showed that workers who perceived compensation decisions as equitable displayed greater job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Expectancy Theory of Victor Vroom
Cognitive process theory founded on two basic notions: FIRST. Vroom assumes that people expect certain outcomes of behavior and performance, which may be thought of as rewards, or consequences of behavior. SECOND. People believe there is a correlation between the effort they put forth, the performance they achieve, and the outcomes they receive. Key constructs in the expectancy theory of motivation are the valence of an outcome, expectancy and instrumentality.
Motivational Problems in Expectancy Theory
E T attributes motivational problems to three basic causes. 1. Disbelief in a relationship between effort and performance, 2. Disbelief in a relationship between performance and rewards. 3. Lack of desire for the rewards. Research results on ET have been mixed. The theory predicts job satisfaction accurately. but its complexity makes it difficult to test the full model, and the measures of instrumentality, valence, and expectancy have only weak validity.
Motivation and moral maturity
People will work to maximize their personal outcomes. This is consistent with Adam Smith's idea of working for one's own self-interest. ET cannot explain altruistic behavior making it necessary to consider an individuals moral maturity in order to understand altruistic, fair, or equitable behavior. Morally mature=universal ethical principles. Morally immature people=egocentric motivations.
Cultural Differences in Motivation
Researches found cultural differences with Maslow's, McClelland's, and Herzberg's theories. Americans--Self-actualization. Security may be the most important need in cultures with high need to avoid uncertainty. Other cultures do not value achievement as much as americans do. Two factor theory has been tested in other countries as well. Results in New Zealand did not replicate the results found in the U.S. Supervision and interpersonal relationships were important as opposed to hygienic factors in America. ET may hold up well in cultures that value individualism but break down in more collectivist cultures that value cooperative efforts, where rewards are more closely tied to group and team efforts.
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