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part of the endocrine system that regulates the level of sugar in the blood.


In addition to controlling other endocrine glands, the pituitary also has primary responsibility for regulating:


Bundles of axons which connect the peripheral nervous system to the brain and spinal cord are called


vast majority of neurons in the body'


work groups that neurons cluster into

neural networks

are chemical messengers mostly manufactured by the endocrine glands, and they can influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression


Endocrine glands that play an important role in helping us respond to stress are the:

adrenal glands

formation from the peripheral nervous system is carried to the central nervous system by neural "cables" called


Compared to messages delivered by the nervous system, messages delivered by the endocrine system are

slower and last longer

somatic nervous system

voluntary control of movements

Which of the following is an important part of the endocrine system but is not an endocrine gland?


pituitary gland affects...


parasympathetic nervous system

rest and digest
when body is rest,, responsible for these actions

Motor and sensory neurons together comprise the

peripheral nervous system

simliarites of endocrine and nervous system

both secrete molecules that activate receptors elsewhere

.... are chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps between neurons


action potential

the local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted

motor neurons.

carry info from the brain and spinal cord to tissues

Skeletal muscles are controlled by the

somatic nervous system

Bundles of axons that connect the peripheral nervous system to the brain and spinal cord are called


connects the peripheral nervous system to the brain

the spinal cord

autonomic nervous system

involuntary movements

The peripheral nervous system consists of

sensory and motor neurons


1879 created first psych lab

study of the relationship between reasoning capacities and brain functions would be of most direct interest to

cognitive neuroscience

Margaret Washburn

first person to earn a phd in psych

Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of


behavior genetics approach to psych

genes and environment affect our individual differences

scientific study of mental and behavioral processes


empirical thinking

observation-based, more open to randomness, steps like the scientific method

critical thinking

does not blindly access arguments, examines assumptions


the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings.


William James's school of thought that stressed the adaptive and survival value of behaviors

basic vs. applied research

.pure science that aims increase scientific knowledge base
-scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

double-blind experiment

an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment

cognitive revolution

The shift away from strict behaviorism, characterized by renewed interest in fundamental problems of consciousness and internal mental processes.


Simultaneously processing on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

hindsight bias

why didnt i see that coming

operational definition

list of procedures used to define research variables


to repeat a research study, usually with different participants and in different situations, to confirm the results of the original study

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists.

mary whilton calkins

founded one of the first psychological labratories in the US and was the fist woman elected president of the American Psychological Association


the scientific study of the brain and of the links between brain activity and behavior

cognitive neuroscience

studies our connection between brain activity and processess and thinking , knowing, remembering and communicating

evolutionary genetics

nature vs. nurture. survival values of certain behavioral characteristics

behavior genetics

school of thought that focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.


freud , how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts


study of observable behaviour


emphasize the growth of healthy, happy people


mental activities associated with thinking, remembering

big idea 1

critical thinking is smart thinking

big idea 2

behavior is biocise psycho social event


we operate with a two track mind- dual processing


psych explores human strengths as well as challenges


before the hypothesis

case studies

studying one person in great depth

observational research

data by observing relevant people, actions, and situations


Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions.


a measure of how factors can predict each other

positive correlation

indicates a direct relationship, 0 and 1, both factors increase together or decrease together

negative correlation

between 0 and -1, as one thing increases, another decreases

independent variable

the factor that is being manipulated, the variable that is being studied, doesnt change

dependent variable

the output the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable

experimental group

subjects in an experiment to whom the independent variable is administered

control group

serves as a contrast to the experimental group


the junction between the axon tip and dendrite, space between two neurons

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.


a technique for revealing bloodflow, shows function of brain


recording apparatus using electrodes placed on the scalp that records waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain surface


a technique that enables us to see static images of the brain's structures; uses magnetism, shows brain anatomy


a view of brain activity, shoots radioactive stuff in body, showing radioactive glucose and what the brain does

peripheral nervous system

Division of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body


controls self regulated actions of internal organs


voluntary actions

sympathetic nervous

arousing, Fight or Flight" response -Response to stress to ensure survival

parasympathetic nervous

resting, involuntary movements

2 types of brain cells

neurons and glia

function of neuron

its function is to transmit electrical impulses

parts of neuron

dendrite-picks up info in nerve impulses
cell body- contains nucleus
The AXON which carries the impulse away from the cell body.


support the neuron


nerve cell

myelin sheath

layer of fatty material around a neuron's axon membrane that speeds electrical impulses

action potential

neural impulse, brief electrical charge that travels down the axon


Chemical messengers


chemical "messengers" of the endocrine system that are released into the blood, produced by endocrine glands

brain stem

structure that connects the brain and spinal cord; controls involuntary action


attached to the rear of the brainstem; voluntary movement and balance

limbic system

border of brainstem, concerned with emotion


outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input

corpus callosum

connects the two brain hemispheres

left hemisphere

hemisphere of brain that specializes in speaking, calculating, logic, language processing (concrete)

right hemisphere

This half of the brain specializes in perception of physical environment, art, nonverbal communication, music & spiritual aspects. It receives information from and controls the opposite side of the body. -abstract

brain lateralization

the specialization of function in each hemisphere`


the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

Phineas Gage

Vermont railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that changed his personality and behavior; his accident gave information on the brain and which parts are involved with emotional reasoning

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