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95 terms

psychology in everyday life test 1

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part of the endocrine system that regulates the level of sugar in the blood.
pancreas
In addition to controlling other endocrine glands, the pituitary also has primary responsibility for regulating:
growth
Bundles of axons which connect the peripheral nervous system to the brain and spinal cord are called
nerves
vast majority of neurons in the body'
interneurons
work groups that neurons cluster into
neural networks
are chemical messengers mostly manufactured by the endocrine glands, and they can influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression
hormones
Endocrine glands that play an important role in helping us respond to stress are the:
adrenal glands
formation from the peripheral nervous system is carried to the central nervous system by neural "cables" called
nerves
Compared to messages delivered by the nervous system, messages delivered by the endocrine system are
slower and last longer
somatic nervous system
voluntary control of movements
Which of the following is an important part of the endocrine system but is not an endocrine gland?
hypothalamus
pituitary gland affects...
growth
parasympathetic nervous system
rest and digest
when body is rest,, responsible for these actions
Motor and sensory neurons together comprise the
peripheral nervous system
simliarites of endocrine and nervous system
both secrete molecules that activate receptors elsewhere
.... are chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps between neurons
neurotransmitters
action potential
the local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted
motor neurons.
carry info from the brain and spinal cord to tissues
Skeletal muscles are controlled by the
somatic nervous system
Bundles of axons that connect the peripheral nervous system to the brain and spinal cord are called
nerves
connects the peripheral nervous system to the brain
the spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
involuntary movements
The peripheral nervous system consists of
sensory and motor neurons
wundt
1879 created first psych lab
study of the relationship between reasoning capacities and brain functions would be of most direct interest to
cognitive neuroscience
Margaret Washburn
first person to earn a phd in psych
Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of
learning
behavior genetics approach to psych
genes and environment affect our individual differences
scientific study of mental and behavioral processes
psychology
empirical thinking
observation-based, more open to randomness, steps like the scientific method
critical thinking
does not blindly access arguments, examines assumptions
structuralism
the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings.
functionalism
William James's school of thought that stressed the adaptive and survival value of behaviors
basic vs. applied research
.pure science that aims increase scientific knowledge base
-scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
double-blind experiment
an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment
cognitive revolution
The shift away from strict behaviorism, characterized by renewed interest in fundamental problems of consciousness and internal mental processes.
dual-processing
Simultaneously processing on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
hindsight bias
why didnt i see that coming
operational definition
list of procedures used to define research variables
replicate
to repeat a research study, usually with different participants and in different situations, to confirm the results of the original study
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists.
mary whilton calkins
founded one of the first psychological labratories in the US and was the fist woman elected president of the American Psychological Association
neuroscience
the scientific study of the brain and of the links between brain activity and behavior
cognitive neuroscience
studies our connection between brain activity and processess and thinking , knowing, remembering and communicating
evolutionary genetics
nature vs. nurture. survival values of certain behavioral characteristics
behavior genetics
school of thought that focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.
psychodynamic
freud , how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
behaviorism
study of observable behaviour
humanistic
emphasize the growth of healthy, happy people
cognitive
mental activities associated with thinking, remembering
big idea 1
critical thinking is smart thinking
big idea 2
behavior is biocise psycho social event
3
we operate with a two track mind- dual processing
4
psych explores human strengths as well as challenges
theory
before the hypothesis
case studies
studying one person in great depth
observational research
data by observing relevant people, actions, and situations
surveys
Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions.
correlation
a measure of how factors can predict each other
positive correlation
indicates a direct relationship, 0 and 1, both factors increase together or decrease together
negative correlation
between 0 and -1, as one thing increases, another decreases
independent variable
the factor that is being manipulated, the variable that is being studied, doesnt change
dependent variable
the output the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable
experimental group
subjects in an experiment to whom the independent variable is administered
control group
serves as a contrast to the experimental group
synapse
the junction between the axon tip and dendrite, space between two neurons
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
fMRI
a technique for revealing bloodflow, shows function of brain
EEG
recording apparatus using electrodes placed on the scalp that records waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain surface
mri
a technique that enables us to see static images of the brain's structures; uses magnetism, shows brain anatomy
pet
a view of brain activity, shoots radioactive stuff in body, showing radioactive glucose and what the brain does
peripheral nervous system
Division of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body
autonomic
controls self regulated actions of internal organs
somatic
voluntary actions
sympathetic nervous
arousing, Fight or Flight" response -Response to stress to ensure survival
parasympathetic nervous
resting, involuntary movements
2 types of brain cells
neurons and glia
function of neuron
its function is to transmit electrical impulses
parts of neuron
dendrite-picks up info in nerve impulses
cell body- contains nucleus
The AXON which carries the impulse away from the cell body.
glia
support the neuron
neuron
nerve cell
myelin sheath
layer of fatty material around a neuron's axon membrane that speeds electrical impulses
action potential
neural impulse, brief electrical charge that travels down the axon
neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers
hormones
chemical "messengers" of the endocrine system that are released into the blood, produced by endocrine glands
brain stem
structure that connects the brain and spinal cord; controls involuntary action
cerebellum
attached to the rear of the brainstem; voluntary movement and balance
limbic system
border of brainstem, concerned with emotion
cortex
outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input
corpus callosum
connects the two brain hemispheres
left hemisphere
hemisphere of brain that specializes in speaking, calculating, logic, language processing (concrete)
right hemisphere
This half of the brain specializes in perception of physical environment, art, nonverbal communication, music & spiritual aspects. It receives information from and controls the opposite side of the body. -abstract
brain lateralization
the specialization of function in each hemisphere`
plasticity
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
Phineas Gage
Vermont railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that changed his personality and behavior; his accident gave information on the brain and which parts are involved with emotional reasoning