When patients begin therapy with antipsychotic medications, some symptoms resolve sooner than others. During the first week, agitation, hostility, anxiety, and tension may resolve, but other symptoms may take several months to improve. It is not necessary to increase the dose in the first week. IM dosing is indicated for patients with severe, acute schizophrenia and for long-term maintenance. Sedation is normal, and once an effective dose has been determined, the entire dose can be taken at bedtime, but not in the initial days of therapy
Patients taking benzodiazepines for anxiety sometimes develop paradoxical responses to the drug, which include insomnia, excitation, euphoria, heightened anxiety, and rage. A missed dose would trigger withdrawal symptoms, which would include anxiety, insomnia, sweating, tremors, and dizziness. Because this is a paradoxical reaction to the drug, a longer-acting drug would make the symptoms worse. This is not caused by overdose, which would manifest as drowsiness, lethargy, and confusion, so a drug level is not warranted
This patient shows signs of alcohol use disorder, according to the AUDIT Screening Instrument, and has a score of at least 21 points from the information included in this history. A score of 8 or higher for men up to age 60 and a score of 4 or higher for others are positive screening results. The patient recently has consumed alcohol, as evidenced by the detectable smell, although the amount consumed and the time since the last drink cannot be determined. Because this patient is an active alcoholic, the risk of withdrawal symptoms is high; therefore, the patient needs medication to facilitate withdrawal. Benzodiazepines are the safest, most effective medications for this purpose, and those with longer half-lives, including chlordiazepoxide, are preferred. Clonidine is useful as an adjunct to help reduce autonomic symptoms associated with withdrawal. Disulfiram is used to maintain abstinence; its use along with alcohol can produce dangerous symptoms. Naltrexone is used to maintain abstinence by reducing cravings; it does not facilitate withdrawal.
The nurse should suspect pyelonephritis. Pyelonephritis is characterized by fever, chills, severe flank pain, dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency, and pyuria and bacteriuria. Clinical manifestations of acute cystitis include dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency, suprapubic discomfort, pyuria, and bacteriuria. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very general and are classified by their location. These symptoms are specific to pyelonephritis. Prostatitis is manifested by high fever, chills, malaise, myalgia, localized pain, and various UTI symptoms but not by severe flank pain
The nurse should suspect prostatitis, which is manifested by high fever, chills, malaise, myalgia, and localized pain and may also be manifested by dysuria, nocturia, and urinary urgency, frequency, and retention. Clinical manifestations of acute cystitis include dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency, suprapubic discomfort, pyuria, and bacteriuria. Urinary tract infections are very general and are classified by their location. Pyelonephritis is characterized by fever, chills, severe flank pain, dysuria, and urinary frequency and urgency, as well as by pyuria and bacteriuria
Constipation cannot necessarily be defined by the frequency of bowel movements, because this varies from one individual to another. Constipation is defined in terms of a variety of symptoms, including hard stools, infrequent stools, excessive straining, prolonged effort, and unsuccessful or incomplete defecation. A common cause of constipation is diet, especially fluid and fiber intake; therefore, when changes in stool patterns occur, patients should be questioned about food and fluid intake. Because this patient has only more infrequent stools and is not truly constipated, laxatives are not indicated