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Includes childhood mental disorders


Nine stages in human development; cradle to death


6 life phases from 15-70

William Shakespeare

7 life stages

Robert Enright

Found that conceptions of adolescence have varied with changing political and economic conditions.

Anne Petersen

Most girls who mature earlier are less satisfied with their size, weight and figure. They are more likely to develop eating disorders

Avshalom Caspi and Terrie Moffitt

Found those who had difficulties before puberty and who reached puberty earlier were more likely to get in trouble

Eliot Turiel

12-13 yrs. begin to see various social conventions (dress, hair styles) as unreasonable

Lawrence Kohlberg

Moral development is measured not by what decision is made but by how that decision is reasoned; adolescence is the best time

Kohlberg: 3 levels of moral thought

Pre-conventional, conventional and postconventional

John Snarey

Most children advance through Kohlberg's theory at the same rate and in the same sequence for the first 2 levels.

Carol Gilligan

woman address moral issues in a different voice but not morally inferior

Martin Hoffman

Morality in children is rooted in empathy

Nancy Eisenburg

To predict changes in moral behavior you should examine the child's reason specifically about prosocial, helpful actions


assisted suicide; study of death and dying

Erik Erikson

All people go through life stages, each marked by a crisis; adolescence: identity crisis; 8 psychosocial stages

Reed Larson

Adolescents undergo disengagement where they spend less time with family, etc.

Laurence Steinberg

Some tensions within the family are triggered not by age but by puberty

Thomas Berndt

The tendency to conform declines as you get older

Frederick Gibbons and Meg Gerrard

Adolescents don't often plan to act out but react to social situations that call for risk.

Jeffrey Arnett

According to this man, there are three perceived sources of difficulty: conflict with parents, risk-taking behavior, and mood disruptions


Are older people farsighted or nearsighted?

Ellen Langer

Experiment resulted in the speculation that although aging is inevitable, perhaps the extent to which we show the symptoms are not

Timothy Salthouse

aging people become slower to process and react to information.

Jane Berry

Found that 60-80 yr. olds are less confident than 18-30 yr. olds in their cognitive abilities

Alzheimer's disease

Inattention followed by loss of cognitive functions. Disorientation, anger, depression, etc.; drugs have been made to slow it down by boosting acetylcholine

Fluid intelligence

Form of intelligence that involves logical thinking

Crystallized intelligence

Form of intelligence that reflects trivial knowledge and verbal skills

Raymond Cattell

This man and later, John horn, distinguished between fluid and crystallized intelligence

David Wechsler

created the most widely used adult intelligence test

K. Warner Schaie and Sherry Willis

Discovered that crystallized intelligence remains steady while fluid slowly decreases with age.

Daniel Levinson

Proposed that there are 4 eras to a person: preadulthood, early/middle/late adulthood

Bernice Neugarten

People are sensitive to the ticking of a social clock

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

5 stages of coping with death: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance


Time of rapid cognitive growth, peer pressure creates a tendency to conform


Child protégés, can't communicate very well


head bangers, don't like being touched, can understand but can't communicate


Smart kid, doesn't have social abilities, gets stuck on certain things

Conduct Disorder

Run away from home, don't fight fair (using a knife in a fight), 90% have parents in prison


mean, bad, can develop into conduct disorder


prefrontal cortex: too much epinephrine; can't focus; can be helped with meds


Combination of physical and vocal problems


kids will pull out their hair


peeing/pooping in pants; psychological disorder


Dr. Death; made a death machine to help suicide people die

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