AP Psychology, Ch. 11: Adolescence and Adulthood

Includes childhood mental disorders
Nine stages in human development; cradle to death
6 life phases from 15-70
William Shakespeare
7 life stages
Robert Enright
Found that conceptions of adolescence have varied with changing political and economic conditions.
Anne Petersen
Most girls who mature earlier are less satisfied with their size, weight and figure. They are more likely to develop eating disorders
Avshalom Caspi and Terrie Moffitt
Found those who had difficulties before puberty and who reached puberty earlier were more likely to get in trouble
Eliot Turiel
12-13 yrs. begin to see various social conventions (dress, hair styles) as unreasonable
Lawrence Kohlberg
Moral development is measured not by what decision is made but by how that decision is reasoned; adolescence is the best time
Kohlberg: 3 levels of moral thought
Pre-conventional, conventional and postconventional
John Snarey
Most children advance through Kohlberg's theory at the same rate and in the same sequence for the first 2 levels.
Carol Gilligan
woman address moral issues in a different voice but not morally inferior
Martin Hoffman
Morality in children is rooted in empathy
Nancy Eisenburg
To predict changes in moral behavior you should examine the child's reason specifically about prosocial, helpful actions
assisted suicide; study of death and dying
Erik Erikson
All people go through life stages, each marked by a crisis; adolescence: identity crisis; 8 psychosocial stages
Reed Larson
Adolescents undergo disengagement where they spend less time with family, etc.
Laurence Steinberg
Some tensions within the family are triggered not by age but by puberty
Thomas Berndt
The tendency to conform declines as you get older
Frederick Gibbons and Meg Gerrard
Adolescents don't often plan to act out but react to social situations that call for risk.
Jeffrey Arnett
According to this man, there are three perceived sources of difficulty: conflict with parents, risk-taking behavior, and mood disruptions
Are older people farsighted or nearsighted?
Ellen Langer
Experiment resulted in the speculation that although aging is inevitable, perhaps the extent to which we show the symptoms are not
Timothy Salthouse
aging people become slower to process and react to information.
Jane Berry
Found that 60-80 yr. olds are less confident than 18-30 yr. olds in their cognitive abilities
Alzheimer's disease
Inattention followed by loss of cognitive functions. Disorientation, anger, depression, etc.; drugs have been made to slow it down by boosting acetylcholine
Fluid intelligence
Form of intelligence that involves logical thinking
Crystallized intelligence
Form of intelligence that reflects trivial knowledge and verbal skills
Raymond Cattell
This man and later, John horn, distinguished between fluid and crystallized intelligence
David Wechsler
created the most widely used adult intelligence test
K. Warner Schaie and Sherry Willis
Discovered that crystallized intelligence remains steady while fluid slowly decreases with age.
Daniel Levinson
Proposed that there are 4 eras to a person: preadulthood, early/middle/late adulthood
Bernice Neugarten
People are sensitive to the ticking of a social clock
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
5 stages of coping with death: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Time of rapid cognitive growth, peer pressure creates a tendency to conform
Child protégés, can't communicate very well
head bangers, don't like being touched, can understand but can't communicate
Smart kid, doesn't have social abilities, gets stuck on certain things
Conduct Disorder
Run away from home, don't fight fair (using a knife in a fight), 90% have parents in prison
mean, bad, can develop into conduct disorder
prefrontal cortex: too much epinephrine; can't focus; can be helped with meds
Combination of physical and vocal problems
kids will pull out their hair
peeing/pooping in pants; psychological disorder
Dr. Death; made a death machine to help suicide people die