17 terms

AQA Psychology - Biopsychology

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Lobes of the brain
Frontal lobe - movement, reasoning
Parietal lobe
Occipital lobe - sight
Temporal lobe - sound
Limbic lobe
Inside of the brain
Cerebellum
Cerebral cortex - thought, language
Hypothalamus - controls body temperature
Pituitary gland - controls all hormones
What are the two main aspects of the nervous system?
Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
What are the two sub-systems of the PNS?
Autonomic Nervous System - involuntary muscle control
Somatic Nervous System - voluntary muscle control
What are the two divisions of the ANS?
Sympathetic - arousing; dilates pupils, accelerates heart rate, inhibits digestion

Parasympathetic - calming; contracts bladder, contracts pupils, lowers heart rate, stimulates digestion
Neurons:
What are the three types of neurons, and what do they do?
Sensory neurons - convert information from sensory receptors to neural impulses; transmit impulses from receptors to CNS

Relay neurons - allow sensory neurons and motor neurons to communicate with each other; located within the CNS

Motor neurons - neurons that carry impulses from CNS to muscles; control contractions of muscles
What is a synapse?
Synapses are found at the end of neurons; they enable electrical impulses to continue after reaching the end of a neuron
Describe the process of synaptic transmission
Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitter; they burst at the end of a synapse and release a neurotransmitter, which diffuses across the synaptic gap; the neurotransmitter triggers a chemical reaction in the receptor sites of the next neuron, which restarts the electrical impulse
What is a neurotransmitter?
A chemical that diffuses across a synaptic gap to continue and electrical impulse
What are the two types of neurotransmitter?
Inhibitory - make neurons less likely to fire

Excitatory - make neurons more likely to fire
GABA and serotonin are what types of neurotransmitter?
Inhibitory
Dopamine and noradrenaline are what types of neurotransmitter?
Excitatory
What is fight or flight?
Activity in the body triggered by a stressful situation; the body prepares to flee or attack; this activity includes the secretion of hormones and changes within the nervous system
What are the two pathways involved in the fight or flight response?
HPA - Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis

SAM - Sympathomedullary Pathway
What is involved in HPA?
Cortex (recognises stressor)
Amygdala
Hypothalamus (organises response)
Pituitary gland (releases ACTH - adrenocorticotrophic hormone)
Adrenal cortex
Cortex releases corticosteroids (defence hormone against stress)
What is involved in SAM?
Cortex (recognises stressor)
Amygdala
Hypothalamus
ANS
Adrenal medulla
Adrenaline is released (hormone that increases energy in the body)