Philosophy Lesson 2
Terms in this set (37)
was the first philosopher (to be called a philosopher). He was concerned with many aspects of the world. He wanted to answer questions that were, at the time, answered by saying something like, "the gods ordered it". The question, "What is everything in the world made of?" was often answered by, "What ever the gods wanted to make it from." Thales wanted a more "scientific" answer to these questions.
Thales dealt with which branch of philosophy
All things according to Thales
Anaximenes primary substance in earth
also wanted to find out what the world was made of. He believed that the world was made of numbers. You've heard of the Pythagorean Theory
was concerned with the problem of change.
would say there is some basic unity that makes us the same but basically all things, including ourselves, are in a constant state of flux
s said that the world consisted of the "One". All of reality is "One". So, if everything is "One" then change is not possible.
- But if something is something then it can't be what it is not. In other words, something can't be and not be at the same time.
Plato's Theory of Knowledge - Forms or Ideas: Forms
-are eternal, immaterial, changeless, universal ideas.
-i.e. the things 'Joe', 'Scott', and 'Bill' are particulars and 'man' is the universal.
Plato's Theory of Knowledge - Forms or Ideas: Where do the form's exist?
"separate" or "apart" from the visible world.
Plato's Theory of Knowledge - Forms or Ideas: How are forms related to things in the visible world?
can cause things.
in the same way a foot, kicking a ball, causes the ball to move
Plato's Theory of Knowledge - Forms or Ideas: How are forms related to each other?
interlock and remain unity,
Plato's Theory of Knowledge - Forms or Ideas: How do we know the forms?
recollection, dialectic, desire
Plato's Theory of Knowledge - Forms or Ideas: Recollection
One part of the soul was created here, in the visible world. This part of the soul is called the irrational part. The other part of the soul was created in the world of the Forms. This part of the soul is called the rational part.
Plato's Theory of Knowledge - Forms or Ideas: Dialectic
(The process of questions and answers with the goal of finding the definition of a thing.
Plato's Theory of Knowledge - Forms or Ideas:Desire
By desire, Plato means exactly what he says. You have to want to know the Forms before you can actually know them.
Plato's Moral Philosophy: The concept of the soul: Rational
contains reason. Reason has the function of controlling the rest of the soul. When reason is in control, the whole soul will attain the good-life.
Plato's Moral Philosophy: The concept of the soul: Rational Examples
is like the driver of a car. If the driver of the car is not paying attention or not driving well, the car (and the driver) won't get to where it is supposed to go. When reason fulfills its function we gain the virtue of wisdom.
Plato's Moral Philosophy: The concept of the soul:Irrational
part of the soul contains two parts. They are called the spirit and the appetite.
two horses "good horse" "bad horse"
Plato's Moral Philosophy: The concept of the soul:Irrational: The "good" horse
is the spirit part of the soul. When spirit fulfills its function we gain courage. (This is the gas peddle of the car mentioned above.)
Plato's Moral Philosophy: The concept of the soul:. The "bad" horse
is the one that provides direction. It goes anywhere it wants to go. (This is the steering wheel of the car.) This part of the irrational soul is called appetite.
is the branch of philosophy concerned primarily with the nature, sources, limits, and criteria of knowledge. In the history of philosophy, epistemology and metaphysics have been intimately connected.
the term, in its original meaning refers to those untitled writings of Aristotle "after the Physics" that deal with subjects more abstract and difficult to understand than those examined in the Physics.
The first Western philosophers are known collectively as the pre-Socratics,
a loose chronological term applying to those Greek philosophers who lived before Socrates (c. 470-399 b.c.).
Thales (c. 640-546 B.C.E.)
conceived and looked for (and is said to be the first to do so) a basic stuff out of which all is constituted. He pronounced it to be water.
- introduced a perspective that was not mythological in character. His view contributed to the idea that nature runs itself according to fixed processes that govern underlying substances.
Anaximander (c. 610-547 B.C.E.)
thought the basic substance must be more elementary than water and must be ageless, boundless, and indeterminate.
- ageless, boundless indeterminate substance
Anaximenes (fl. c. 545 B.C.E.)
the basic substance to be air
Pythagoras (c. 580-500 B.C.E.)
is said to have maintained that things are numbers, but, more accurately (according to his wife Theano), Pythagoras meant that things are things because they can be enumerated. If something can be counted, it is a thing (whether physical or not).
there is an intimacy between things and numbers. Things participate in the universe of order and harmony. This led to the concept that fundamental reality is eternal, unchanging, and accessible only to reason.
Heraclitus (c. 535-475 B.C.E.)
, the essential feature of reality is fire, whose nature is ceaseless change determined by a cosmic order he called the logos, through which there is a harmonious union of opposites
Heraclitus: Ceaseless change
raises the problem of identity (can I step into the sam river twice?) and the problem of personal identity (am l the same person over a lifetime?)
Parmenides (fifth century B.C.E.)
deduced from a priori principles that being is a changeless, single, permanent, indivisible, and undifferentiated whole. Motion and generation are impossible, for if being itself were to change it would become something different. But what is different from being is non-being, and non-being just plain isn't.
Empedocles (c. 490-430 B.C.E.)
reconciling the views of Heraclitus and Parmenides, recognized change in objects but said they were composed of changeless basic material particles: earth, air, fire, water. The apparent changes in the objects of experience were in reality changes in the positions of the basic particles. He also recognized basic forces of change, love, and strife.
Anaxagoras (c. 500-428 B.C.E.)
introduced philosophy to Athens and introduced into metaphysics the distinction between matter and mind. He held that the formation of the world resulted from rotary motion induced in mass by mind = reason = nous.
According to Anaxagoras
mind did not create matter, but only acted on it, and did not act out of purpose or objective.
Leucippus and Democritus:
All things are composed of minute, imperceptible, indestructible, indivisible, eternal, and uncreated particles, differing in size, shape, and perhaps weight. Atoms are infinite in number and eternally in motion.
The Atomists were determinists.
believed that atoms operate in strict accordance with physical laws. They said future motions would be completely predictable for anyone with enough knowledge about the shapes, sizes, locations, directions, and velocities of the atoms.
The common thread of the pre-Socratics:
all believed that the world we experience is merely a manifestation of a more fundamental, underlying reality.