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127 terms

Medical Term Ch. 7

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aden/o
gland
bacteri/o
bacteria
blast/o
germ, bud, developing cell
erythr/o
red
hem/o, hemat/o
blood
leuk/o
white
lymph/o
clear water or fluid
path/o
disease
splen/o
spleen
thromb/o
clot
thym/o
wartlike, thymus gland
tox/o
poison
hematology
the general field of medicine focusing on blood-related disease
hematologist
a physician specializing in the treatment of disease associated with blood
immunology
the field of medicine that treats infectious diseases
bacteriology
study of bacteria
iso-
equal
macro-
large
cyt/o
cell
poikil/o
irregular
-penia
abnormal reduction in number, deficiency
anisocytosis
the presence of red blood cells of unequal size in a sample of blood. "condition of without equal cells"
bacteremia
the presence of bacteria in a sample of blood is a sign of infection. "condition of bacteria in the blood"
erythropenia
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells in a sample of blood
hemolysis
the rupture of the red blood cell membrane. "dissolve blood"
hemorrhage
the abnormal loss of blood from the circulation is a sign of trauma or illness
leukopenia
an abnormally reduced number of white blood cells in a sample of blood.
macrocytosis
the presence of abnormally large red blood cells in a sample of blood is a disease.
poikilocytosis
the presence of tear-shaped red blood cells in a sample of blood. "condition of irregular cell"
polycythemia
an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood. "condition of red cell" may also be called erythrocytosis
splenomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the spleen is a symptom of injury or infection. "abnormally large spleen"
thrombopenia
an abnormally reduced number of platelets in a sample of blood is a symptom of disease
toxemia
the presence of toxins in the bloodstream
an-
without, absence of
ana-
up, toward
mono-
one
botul/o
sausage
globin/o
protein
hydr/o
water
iatr/o
physician
idi/o
individual
immun/o
exempt, or immunity
-genic
pertaining to produce
necr/o
death
nosocom/o
hospital
nucle/o
kernal, nucleus
path/o
disease
sept/o
putrefying, wall or partition
staphylococc/o
staphylococcus (bacterium)
streptococc/o
streptococcus (bacterium)
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
allergy
the body's immune response to allergens
anaphylaxis
an immediate reaction to a foreign substance that includes rapid inflammation, vasodilation, bronchospasms, and spasms of the GI tract
anemia
"without blood" the reduced ability of red blood cells to deliver oxygen to tissues
aplastic anemia
the red bone marrow fails to produce sufficient numbers of normal blood cells
iron deficiency anemia
caused by a lack of available iron, resulting in the body's inability to make adequate amounts of hemoglobin
pernicious anemia
caused by a failure to acquire vitamin B12 into the bloodstream for its delivery to red bone marrow
anthrax
a bacterial disease that has been threatened to be used in bioterrorism
autoimmune disease
a disease that is caused by a person's own immune response attacking otherwise healthy tissue
botulism
A lethal form of food-borne illness caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with the neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
communicable disease
A disease that is capable of transmission from one person to another
diphtheria
an infectious disease resulting in acute inflammation of the mucous membrane, primarily in the mouth and throat.
dyscrasia
"difficult temperament" any abnormal condition of blood
edema
the leakage of fluid from the bloodstream into the interstitial space between body cells causes swelling and is one aspect of inflammation
fungemia
a fungal infection that spreads throughout the body by way of the bloodstream
gas gangrene
"eating sore" infection of a wound may be caused by various anaerobic bacteria, which can cause damage to local tissues
hematoma
a mass of blood outside blood vessels and confined within an organ or space within the body, usually in a clotted form. Usually the result of injury or disease.
hemoglobinopathy
a general term for a disease that affects hemoglobin within red blood cells. "disease of blood protein"
hemophilia
an inherited bleeding disorder that results from defective or missing blood-clotting proteins that are necessary components in the coagulation process. "love for blood"
hemorrhagic fever
an infectious disease that causes internal bleeding, or internal hemorrhage and high fevers. Often caused by viruses, such as Ebola
Hodgkin's disease
a malignant form of cancer of lymphatic tissue that is characterized by the progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, fatigue, and deficiency of the immune response.
iatrogenic disease
a condition that is caused by a medical treatment
idiopathic disease
a disease that develops without a known or apparent cause. "pertaining to individual disease"
immunodeficiency
a condition resulting from a defective immune response. Occurs when there are insufficient numbers of functional white blood cells, especially lymphocytes.
immunosuppression
a reduction of an immune response may be caused by disease or by the use of chemical, pharmacological, or immunologic agents
incompatibility
the combination of two blood types that result in the destruction of red blood cells. It may occur during a blood transfusion causing severe consequences
infection
a multiplication of disease-causing microorganisms, or pathogens, in the body
inflammation
the physiological process that serves as the body's initial response to injury and many forms of illness involves the swelling of body tissue.
influenza
a viral disease characterized by fever and an acute inflammation of respiratory mucous membranes
leukemia
a form of cancer that literally means "condition of white blood cells" it originates from cells within the blood-forming tissue of the red bone marrow.
lymphadenitis
inflammation of the lymph nodes
lymphoma
a malignant tumor originating in lymphatic tissue
malaria
a disease caused by a parasitic protozoan that infects red blood cells and the liver during different parts of its life cycle. "bad air"
measles
an acute viral disease that often begins as a fever, followed by the development of a skin rash containing numerous vesicles and often accompanied by a general inflammation of the respiratory tract. Also called rubeola
mononucleosis
a viral disease characterized by enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, atypical lymphocytes, throat pain, pharyngitis, fever, and fatigue. It is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
necrosis
the death of one or more cells or a portion of a tissue or organ
nosocomial infection
an infectious disease that is contracted during a hospital stay
plague
any infectious disease that is widespread and causes extensive mortality
rabies
a viral infection that is spread from the saliva of an infected animal usually by way of a bite. The virus acts on the CNS to cause paranoia and paralysis
septicemia
a systemwide disease caused by the presence of bacteria and their toxins in the circulating blood
smallpox
a viral disease caused by the variola virus that was the scourge of the human population prior to its eradication of 1975.
staphylococcemia
the presence of the bacterium Staphylococcus in the blood. A frequent cause of infection in wounds, a complication of normal healing.
staph infection
the most common cause of food-borne illness, skin inflammation, osteomyelitis, and nosocomial infections
MRSA
resistant strands of staphylococcemia, also called mersa.
streptococcemia
the presence of the bacterium Streptococcus in the blood. Frequently begins in the throat or mouth and if not managed may spread to the bloodstream
tetanus
a disease caused by a powerful neurotoxin released by the common bacterium Clostridium tetani. The toxins acts on the CNS to cause convulsions and spastic paralysis
thymoma
a tumor originating in the thymus gland
antibiotic therapy
a therapeutic treatment involving the use of a substance with known toxicity to bacteria
-crit
to seperate
-logous
pertaining to study
anticoagulant
a chemical agent that delays or prevents the clotting process in blood. often administered to reduce the likelihood of clot formation after surgery. The most common form is warfarin
antiretroviral therapy
a pharmacological therapy that is useful in battling a class of viruses that tend to mutate quickly, called retroviruses. It is used against the virus that causes AIDS.
attenuation
the process in which pathogens are rendered less virulent, or infectious, prior to their incorporation into a vaccine preparation. "to make thin"
autologous transfusion
a transfusion of blood donated by a patient for their personal use. It is a common procedure before a surgery to avoid potential incompatibility or contamination of blood.
blood chemistry
a test or series of tests on a sample of plasma to measure the levels of its composition, including glucose, albumin, triglycerides, pH, cholesterol, and electrolytes.
blood culture
a clinical test to determine infection in the blood
blood transfusion
the introduction of blood, blood products, or a blood substitute into a patient's circulation to restore blood volume to normal levels.
bone marrow transplant
a common procedure to treat leukemia, or injury resulting from radiation therapy or chemotherapy
coagulation time
a timed blood test to determine the time required for a blood clot to form
complete blood count
a common laboratory test that evaluates a sample of blood to provide diagnostic information about a patient's general health
differential count
a microscopic count of the number of each type of white blood cell in a sample of blood. The procedure uses staining techniques to highlight the features of white blood cells, allowing the hematologist to distinguish between the types.
hematocrit
a procedure included in a complete blood count that measures the percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood.
hematology
the general field of medicine focusing on blood-related disease
hemoglobin
a procedure included in a complete blood count that measures the level of hemoglobin in red blood cells
hemostasis
the stoppage of bleeding in a physiological process. "standing still blood"
homologous transfusion
transfusion of blood that is voluntarily donated by another person.
immunization
a treatment that establishes immunity against a particular foreign substance that may otherwise cause disease
immunology
the science concerned with immunity and allergy
immunotherapy
the treatment of infectious disease by the administration of pharmacological agents, such as serum, gamma globulin, treated antibodies, and suppressive drugs
lymphadenectomy
the surgical removal of one or more lymph nodes
platelet count
a laboratory procedure that calculates the number of platelets in a known volume of blood.
prophylaxis
any treatment that tends to prevent the onset of an infection or other type of disease. "protection before"
red blood count
a lab test included in a complete blood count that measures the number of red blood cells within a given volume of blood
splenectomy
this surgical removal of the spleen is often necessary if it has ruptured, which may occur during a physical injury to the left side of the trunk
thrombolysis
a treatment that is performed to dissolve an unwanted blood clot, or thrombus. "dissolve clot"
vaccination
the inoculation of a foreign substance that has reduced virulence, or a reduced ability to cause infection, as a means of providing a cure or prophylaxis.
vaccine
a preparation that is used to activate an immune response to provide acquired immunity against an infectious agent