Unit 4: Sensation and Perception
Terms in this set (83)
Process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive stimulus energy.
Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Analysis begins with sensory receptors and works up to brain's integration of sensory information.
Information processing guided by higher mental processes, or drawing perceptions based on our experiences.
Study of how physical energy relates to our psychological experience.
Edge or boundary.
Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus.
Signal Detection Theroy
Detection of a stimulus depends on the intensity of the stimulus, and the physical and psychological state of the individual.
Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
Minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli 50% of the time.
To be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion (rather than a constant amount).
Diminished sensitivity as a result of constant stimulation.
Sensory systems convert stimulus energy into neural messages.
The rounded transparent covering that protects the eye, and allows light in and focuses light waves into small beams.
Ring of muscle tissue that forms colored portion of eye around pupil.
Round opening at front of eye that admits light.
Transparent structure behind pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina.
Light sensitive inner surface of eye.
Visual receptor cells located on edge of retina, which detect black, white, gray and movement.
Visual receptor cells located in center of retina that detect color and sharp details.
A point at which optic nerve leaves the eye.
Central focal point in retina, where eye's cones cluster.
Nearby objects seen more clearly, because objects focus in front of retina.
Faraway objects seen more clearly, because objects focus behind retina.
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory
The retina contains receptor cells that are "tuned" to detect red, green or blue.
Opponent Process Theory
Color is processed in opponent pairs (red-green, yellow-blue, and black-white).
The result of the opponent process theory.
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if light reflecting off of the object changes; context influences our thinking.
Process several aspects of a problem simultaneously.
The pitch (high or low frequencies) we hear is determined by which areas ("place") of the cochlea are stimulated.
The rate ("frequency") of nerve pulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of the tone.
Conduction Hearing Loss
Damage to the mechanical system that sends sound waves to the cochlea (i.e. - a punctured eardrum).
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Damage to the cochlea's hair cell receptors or their nerves (i.e. - aging, heredity, prolonged exposure to loud noise).
Two senses are sensed at the same time.
One sense may influence another.
The spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain.
Kinesthesia (Kinesthetic Sense)
Sensing the position and movement of individual body parts, along with muscles, tendons and joints.
The sense of body orientation and balance.
A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger neural impulses.
The receptor cells of hearing; located in the cochlea where sound waves are changed to neural impulses.
Carries sound information from the ears to the thalamus, and then to the auditory cortex of the temporal lobe.
The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (i.e. - per second).
A tone's highness or lowness (length), depends on frequency of sound waves.
Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, while excluding others.
Inability to see an object that is present.
Person viewing a visual scene fails to detect large changes in the scene.
The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
The tendency to place items that look similar into same group.
If objects are close together, we place them in the same group.
The brain's tendency to look for the whole (not parts) drives us to fill in gaps in a perceptual field.
Once an object appears to move in a particular direction, your brain thinks that movement continues unchanged.
The laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
Depth cues that require the use of both eyes.
Depth cues that require the use of only one eye.
The difference between the images you see with the retinas in your left and right eyes.
Tension in the eye muscles when the eyes track inward to focus on objects close to the viewer.
The monocular cue that states that if an object seems larger, it is probably closer, and if an object is smaller, it is probably distant.
The monocular cue that states that an object's apparent slowness indicates the object's distance.
The monocular cue that states that closer objects partially obstruct the view of more distant objects.
The monocular cue that states that distant objects appear higher in your field of vision than close objects do.
The monocular cue that states that distant objects usually have a much smoother texture than nearby objects.
The monocular cue that states that distant objects are less clear than nearby objects are.
The monocular cue that states that parallel lines seem to draw together in the distance.
A series of slightly varying still images.
Creating the illusion of movement when fixed lights are turned on and off.
Perceiving the shape, size, and lightness of an object as unchanging, even as retinal image of object changes.
A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
In vision, the ability to adjust to artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
The claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input.
A knowledge of future events.
An ability to exchange thoughts with another person.
An ability to "see" remote events.
Mind over matter (levitating).
The study of paranormal phenomenon.
Locating the direction of a sound depends upon one ear hearing the sound first, and one ear hearing a louder, more intense sound.
5 Taste Sensations
Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami.
The portion of the brain that receives neural input about odors.
4 Skin Sensations
Warm, cold, pressure, and pain.
Cocktail Party Effect
Focusing your listening attention on a single talker among a mixture of conversations.
The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into understandable groups.
The perception of uniform or linked spots, lines, or areas as a single unit.
When visual and other sensory information conflict, our brain resolves the conflict by accepting visual data.
The ability to see in three-dimensions and gauge the distance to an object.
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