The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of time.
A layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximately 16 km and containing most of the atmosphere's nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.
The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50km above the surface of the Earth.
The percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface.
The maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature.
The cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands
Latent Heat Release
The release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water.
A convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30N and 30S
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
An area of Earth that receives the most intense sunlight; where the ascending branches of the two Hadley Cells converge
A convection cell in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60N and 60S and sinks at the poles, 90N and 90S
The deflection of an object's path due to the rotation of the Earth.
A large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
The upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents.
An oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water
El-Nino Southern Oscillation
The periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and southeastern Asia.
A region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side.
A geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow in water.
A cold and treeless biome with low-growing vegetation.
An impermeable, permenantly frozen layer of soil.
A forest made up of primarily coniferous evergreen trees that cal tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons.
A coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation.
Temperate Seasonal Forest
A biome with warmer summers and colder winters than temperate rainforests and dominated by deciduous trees.
A biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
Temperate grassland/Cold Desert
A biome characterized by cold, harsh winters and hot, dry summers.
A warm and wet biome found between 20N and 20S of the equator, with little seasonal temperature variation and high precipitation.
Tropical Seasonal Forest/Savanna
A biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons.
A biome prevailing at approximately 30N and 30S with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation.
The shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow.
A zone of open water in lakes and ponds.
A region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes.
The muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean.
A marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates.
A swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coasts, and contains salt-tolerant trees with roots submerged in water.
The narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide.
The most diverse marine biome on Earth, found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline.
A phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
The upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis.
The layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis.
A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide.