12 terms

Functional Analysis

STUDY
PLAY
Functional analysis
Examination of inappropriate behavior and its antecedents and consequences to determine one or more functions that the behavior might serve for the learner.
Experimental Conditions
-Alone
-Attention
-Demand (Escape)
-Play
-Tangible (if needed)
Alone Condition
1. Antecedent Conditions:
-No experimenter is present
-If experimenter is present, no social interaction occurs
-No toys, no reinforcers
-EO in Effect is: Deprivation of Attention or Tangibles
2. Consequences for problem behavior:
-Problem behavior is ignored or neutrally re-directed.
3. If problem behavior is high in this condition
-Possible behavior produces it's own reinforcement
Attention Condition
1. Antecedent Conditions:
-Preferred activities or toys are freely available
-Experimenter withholds attention: Experimenter engages in activities (e.g., read, correct papers, not attending to client), Divided attention: Experimenter attends to another person in the room
-EO in effect is: Deprivation of Attention
2. Consequences for problem behavior:
-(5-10s) of attention (e.g., reprimand or calming affect, even pats or holding client) contingent on problem behavior
3. If problem behavior is high in this condition: Social positive reinforcement
Play Condition (AKA Control)
1. Antecedent Conditions:
-Preferred activities continuously available
-Non-contingent social attention (at 30s intervals)
-No demands are placed
-MO in effect is: AO
2. Consequences for problem behavior:
-Problem behavior is ignored or neutrally re-directed.
-If problem behavior is exhibited right when you are about to offer attention, wait 5s
3. If problem behavior is high in this condition:
-Possible behavior produces it's own reinforcement
-If problem behavior is high in this condition AND demand condition, it's possible behavior is maintained by escape from social interaction
Demand Condition
1. Antecedent Conditions:
-Experimenter presents a relevant task demand (based on descriptive analysis)
-If client does not comply within 5 seconds, experimenter demonstrates correct response (least to most prompts)
-Praise correct response
-EO in Effect is: CMO-R
2. Consequences for problem behavior:
-Demand is immediately terminated contingent on problem behavior for 30s.
3. If problem behavior is high in this condition:
-Problem behavior is maintained by escape from task demands.
Tangible (if needed) Condition
-Potent access (can become secondary function. We have to add in another function
Latency Based FA
1. Sessions are terminated following first occurrence of a target response
2. In Thomason et al., correspondence between results of the two assessments was observed in 9 out of 10 cases
-every case the latency-based FA resulted in many fewer occurrences of problem behavior
Brief FA
1. To address this issue we can use:
-Brief Functional Analysis (Northup et al., 1991)
-Single exposure, 5-min sessions (< 90 min total)
-Alone, Attention, Play, Demand
-Single exposure to 5-min sessions 50%-60% loss in precision
-Not recommended unless no other option
-Repeated exposure much better than single exposure
-Repeated two to three 5-min sessions
-10% loss in precision
-10-min duration optimal; 5 min adequate
Trial-based FA
Conditions: Attention, escape, ignore, tangible
-10 trials of each condition, embedded into activities
(can do up to 20)
-3 of each type with reliability observer
-Trials: Two, 2-min segments:
Attention, escape, tangible conditions
control -> test
Ignore condition
test ->test
Trial-based FA Sequence
1. Identify target child/behavior
2. Obtain consent*, operationally define behavior, determine necessary trial types
3. Conduct MSWO Preference Assessment
-Identify moderately and highly preferred items
4. Conduct trials
-10 of each relevant types, 3 of each with reliability observer
5. Calculate % of trials (for test and control) with behavior
6. Graph Data and determine function
7. Develop, implement and evaluate function-based intervention
8. If problem behavior occurs (Ignore):
-Do nothing: Each segment continues full 2 minutes, NO consequences for problem behavior
-Data: Score a check mark for problem behavior,
(Dash = no problem behavior in that segment)
Other Variations of FA
-Divided-attention (Mace, Page, Ivancic, & O'Brien, 1986)
-Access to tangible items (Mace & West, 1986)
-Social avoidance (Hagopian, Wilson, & Wilder, 2001).
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