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two or more people who intereact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs


a group whose members work intensely with one another to achieve a specific common goal or objective


performance gains that result when individuals and departments coordinate their actions

formal group

a group that managers establish to achive organizational goals

informal group

a group that managers or nonmanagerial employees form to help achieve their own goals or meet their own needs

top-management team

a group composed of the CEO, the president, and the heads of the most important departments

research and development team

a team whose members have the expertise and experience needed to develop new products

command group

a group composed of subordinates who report to the same supervisor; also called department or unit

task force

a committee of manageres or nonmangerial employees from various departments or divisions who meet to solve a specific, mutual problem; also called ad hoc committee

self-managed work team

a group of employees who supervise their own activities and monitor the quality of the goods and services they provide

virtual team

a team whose members rarely or never meet face-to-face but, rather, intereact by using various forms of information technology such as e-mail, computer networks, telephone, fax, and videocameras

friendship group

an informal group composed of employees who enjoy one another's company and socialize with one another

interest group

an infomral group composed of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization

division of labor

splitting the work to be performed into particular tasks and assigning tasks to individual workers

task interdependence

the degree to which the work performed by one member of a group influences the work performed by other members

pooled task interdependence

the task interdependence that exists when group members make seperate and independent contributions to group performance

sequential task interdependence

the task interdependence that exists when group members must perform specific tasks in a predetermined order

reciporal task interdependence

the task interdependence that exists when the work performed by each group member is fully dependent on the work performed by other group members

group role

a set of behaviors and tasks that a member of a group is expected to perform because of his or her position in the group

role making

taking the initiative to modify an assigned role by assuming additional responsibilites

group norms

shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow

group cohesiveness

the degree to which members are attracted to or loyal to their group

social loafing

the tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they work in groups than when they work alone

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