French & Indian War

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The French & Indian war was a Precursor to what?

The French & Indian Revolution

What does the term "Middle Ground" refer to?

a geographical area where 2 groups of people interacted in, but neither could control the land.

Example of a "Middle Ground" situation:

Western New York & Ohio River Valley

What was the "Iroquois Confederacy"?

indian groups that came together to form a confederacy.

How many different indian groups did the Iroquois Confederacy start out with?


How many diff. indian groups did the Iroquois Confederacy end with?


When was the Iroquois Confederacy created?

early 1500s

Why was the Iroquois Confederacy created?

to end generations of warfare between each other

* Which Indian nations belonged to the Iroquois Confederacy?

Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, Onondaga & Fuscarora

Where did the Iroquois Confederacy primarily operate?

Western New York (including Ohio River Valley, Canada)

Why was the Iroquois Confederacy significant for European powers that were competing for control over North America?

Because of their location

What was so significant about the Iroquois Confederacy's location?

it was right in the middle of the french & english so they had more power over the 2.

Why were the Iroquois major losers @ the end of the French & Indian war?

British won so the British didn't need help from the Iroquois anymore

Who won the French & Indian war?


What is the major, overall reason why the French & Indian war is significant to American history?

one of the 1st major world wars

What did the French & Indian war directly lead to?

the American Revolution

How many major European wars took place between late 1680's & the mid 1760's?


Throughout ALL of the wars, which rivalry remained constant?

England & France

What were all of these major European wars that were fought mainly over?

the struggle for world dominance

Where did the 1st 3 major European wars begin?

In Europe & then spilled over into North America

The French & Indian war was different than all the other wars for what 2 reasons?

it was the final showdown between France & England for dominance over North America, and it was the only war to begin in North America

What are the 2 names of the 4th war that was fought?

french & indian war, 7 years war

Where did the French & Indian war begin? (specific area)

Ohio River Valley

Which 2 European nations claimed the Ohio River Valley?

France & England

Why did FRANCE want to own the Ohio River Valley so badly?

to trade with indians, fur trading, strategic territory

Why did BRITAIN(english) want to own the Ohio River Valley so badly?

it was fertile & rich farmland ESPECIALLY Virginia

Both the French & English wanted full ownership over the ORV because of ______ potential and its abundance of ______.

economic, wildlife for fur

What was the "Ohio Company of Virginia"?

a real estate firm

Where was the most important AREA of the Ohio Company's land?

"Forks of the Ohio"

What was so important about the 2 rivers that joined & made the "forks of the ohio"?

Control of these rivers = control of the interior of the continent where the rivers flow.

Along with the Britain & France, what was the 3RD power trying to gain control over the ORV?

the Iroquois

How did the Iroquois intend to dominate the ORV?

by controlling trade between the indians & english

How did the French react to the plans of the Ohio Company?

they built forts

How old was George Washington when all of this drama with the iroquois & virginia company was happening?

in his 20's

in 1752, the governor of Virginia sent George Washington on a mission to do what?

To find the French in their forts and make them leave the ORV

Why did the French build Fort Duquesne?

to defend their intrests in the ORV.

What was the location of Fort Duquesne?

Forks of the Ohio

What was George Washington's 1st major fiasco?

A french nobleman was scalped.

Who scalped & killed the french leader?

Iroquois headmen

Why did the Iroquois headman scalp & kill the french leader?

to establish iroquois dominance in ORV

What did the iroquois headman believe killing the french leader would do for the iroquois?

bring them closer to the english

* What was the name of the fort that Washington felt compelled to build?

For Necessity

Why did Washington feel like he HAD to build Fort Necessity?

b/c since indian allies killed the french leader, he knew the french would soon rebel/riot.

Washingtons military skills at this time = ?

he had none

What was the result of Washingtons encounter with the French?

he had to surrender

How many of Washingtons men were killed during his encounter with the French?


How did the French killing 1/3 of his men & being forced to surrender effect Washington's rep, ESPECIALLY in Virginia?

soared, he became a hero b/c he survived

Why was Washington's double fiasco in the Ohio Valley important?

it launched the beginning of the French & Indian war

In what year did Franch & England declare war on eachother?


WHEN did British forces call for an inter-colonial conference?

June 1754

WHERE did British forces call for an inter-colonial conference?

Albany, New York

WHY did British forces call for an inter-colonial conference? (2 reasons)

they wanted colonial leaders to come up with a plan of defense, & they wanted colonial leaders to come up with a formal alliance with the indians

* Who did British forces want colonial leaders to form an alliance with?

the iroquois

Whose side did the Iroquois Confederacy take during the French & Indian war?

Nobodys. They remained neutral

Whose side did the majority of other indians take during the French & Indian war?


What role did Ben Franklin take on the intercolonial conference?

he wrote up a plan of common defense

* What was Ben Franklin's plan of common defense called?

the Albany Plan of Union

What was Franklins plan to pay for these new, proposed programs?

that a new central government would collect taxes to all 13 colonies

Why did colonial governments reject Franklin's new plan?

they didn't like the idea of a central government who could raise taxes & create laws

* Colonial governments didn't like the idea of a _______ gov who could ______ and _______:

central, raise, create

Which 2 governments didn't like Franklin's new proposed plan?

Colonial, English

Why did the English not like Franklin's proposal of the Albany Plan of Union?

it hinted way too much independence

What was the main goal of the Albany Plan of Union?

to place the British North American colonies under a more centralized government

Why was the Albany Plan of Union significant?

it showed that the colonies were way too jealous of each other to even defend one another

Which colony didn't send delegates to the Albany conference?


Why didn't virginia send any delegates to the Albany conference?

they had no interest in cooperating with any of the other colonies

Virginia ESPECIALLY had no interest in cooperating with what state?


Who did the British send to America to deal with the French?

General Edward Braddock

* who was the commander in chief for the 13 colonies @ the start of the french & indian war?

edward braddock

When did the British send Edward Braddock to America to deal with the French?


* Who took command after General Braddock was killed?


How did Braddock try to achieve his mission of kicking the French out of fort dequesne & the ORV in general?

sneaking through trees with his men / tried to plan a sneak attack

What was Braddocks mission?

to kick the french out of fort dequesne & ohio river valley

What job did George Washington have on the Braddock Expedition?

leader of Virginia colonial militia

What happened to Braddock & his men within 10 miles of Fort Dequesne?

They got attacked

How many of Braddocks men were killed when they were attacked?


What happened to Braddock when him & his men were attacked?

he got killed

What happened to Washington when Braddock & his men got attacked?

He walked away without a scratch

Why did Washington surviving Braddock's Expedition make him more famous?

he got surviving troops back to safety

2 reasons why Braddocks defeat was significant:

easy victory for french & indian allies convinced other indians that the British couldn't fight, and frontier=open war.

The easy victory for the French & Indian allies convinced other indians of what?

that the british couldn't fight

For the next year or 2 after Braddocks Defeat, who appeared to be winning the war?

the French

What was a big problem for the English during the French & Indian war?

the colonial governments weren't cooperating with the british for fresh troops

Who became prime minister of England in 1756

William Pitt

*What year did William Pitt become the prime minister of england?


What was the first major element to William Pitt's new war strategy involving England?

to allow england's allies to focus it's war on Europe & keep it there

Pitt agreed to commit any resources needed so that the _____ could be defeated.


William Pitt's war strategies led to a victory for the _____.


What was William Pitt's 2nd major element of his new war strategy?

to treat all American colonies as equal allies

After Pitt came up with new war strategies, what did many American colonists decide to do?

sign up to help the British fight the French

After Pitt came up with 2 new war strategies, why did many American colonists now decide to sign up to help the British fight the French?

they were being treated equally, unlike before.

Meantime, while Pitt is trying to better his war strategies, what was the strategy of the French? (what were the french doing?)

the French were leaving it's military leaders without supplies

What 2 things helped France & it's allies dominate the French & Indian war during it's first 2 years?

good organization & strategy

By 1758, where did William Pitt's new strategy make a difference?

the British troops began seizing more area of the Ohio River Valley

the British were basically in control of the war by the year _____.


Where did George Washington spend the remainder of the French & Indian War?

his home down in Virginia

What was George Washington's job during the remainder of the french & indian war while he was home in virginia?

he was the commanding officer of virginia militia

WHERE was the most decisive(resulting) battle of the french & indian war located?


WHEN did the most decisive battle of the french & indian war take place?

late 1759

What was the most decisive battle of the french & indian war called?

the battle of quebec

Who commanded the FRENCH forces in the Battle of Quebec?

Marquis de Montcalm

Who was the leader of the BRITISH forces during the Battle of Quebec?

General James Wolfe

Who led BRITISH forces up the Ravine during the battle of quebec?

General William Howe

What happened to both commanders of the British & French forces during the battle of quebec?

they were both shot & killed

How did General Wolfe achieve his everlasting fame during the battle of quebec?

he snuck his army up the ravine (risky)

Which side won the Battle of Quebec?


Why is the Battle of Quebec a big deal?

it was the LAST major battle of the French & Indian war

What was the last major battle of the Frenh & Indian war?

battle of quebec

The battle of quebec marked the end of ________ rule


What was the name of the treaty signed at the end of the French & Indian war? & What year?

Treaty of Paris - 1763

* What year was the Treaty of Paris Signed?


What did the Treaty of Paris bring an end to?

french & indian war

The treaty of Paris also settled hostilities between _____ & ______ and marked the end of ______ rule.

France, England, French

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