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AP US History Period 3
Terms in this set (45)
Olive Branch Petition
petition adopted by the 2nd Continental Congress on July 5, 1775 to prevent an armed conflict between the Thirteen Congress and Great Britain
2nd Continental Congress
a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies which met from 1775 to 1781
lived from 1737 to 1809; American revolutionary writer, most known for his pamphlet Common Sense
pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775 which advocated the argument for American independence from Britain
Declaration of Independence
document adopted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776; declared that the 13 Colonies were now its own sovereign entity separate from the British Empire
lived from 1743 to 1826; third President of the United States (1801-1809); principal author of the Declaration of Independence; leading Republican and visionary of an American agrarian society
Battle of Saratoga
battle between British and American forces during the Revolutionary War fought on September 19th and October 7th, 1777 in Stillwater, New York; decisive American victory which led to the surrender of British General John Burgoyne
colonists who remained loyal to the British Empire in the years leading up to and during the Revolutionary War
colonists who rebelled against the British Empire, seeking reprieve for unfair British treatment of the colonies or independence from the British Empire
Statute of Religious Liberty
statute enacted by Virginia in 1786 which called for the complete separation of church and state
Articles of Confederation
document adopted by the Continental Congress in 1777 which established a national government similar to the one in place before and during the Revolutionary War
lived from 1732 to 1799; first President of the United States (1789-1797); Commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris
treaty between the British Empire and the United States of America signed on September 3, 1783; ended the Revolutionary War, providing a clear recognition of American independence and ceding a large swath of territory to the United States (from Canada border south to the northern border of Florida and westward to the Mississippi River)
also known as the Ordinance of 1787; provided system for the surveying and selling of western lands, particularly the territory north of the Ohio River; created a single Northwest Territory; specified a minimum population of 60,000 as a minimum for statehood, guaranteed freedom of religion and the right to trial by jury, and prohibited slavery throughout the territory
rebellion led by Daniel Shays which lasted from 1786 to 1787; centered around farmers in Massachusetts, in which farmers were furious over heavy state taxation due to heavy post-war debts; Shays' and followers attempt to seize arms from an arsenal in Springfield, leading to a response by state militiamen which dispersed Shays' men
nickname given to a woman said to have fought in the Battle of Monmouth during the Revolutionary War; most regard her as folklore, as she may stand to represent numerous women who supported the American cause during the Revolutionary War
lived from 1744 to 181; wife of John Adams and mother of John Quincy Adams; advocate of married women's property rights and more economic opportunities for women
lived from 1755 to 1804; first US Secretary of the Treasury; founded the first political party, the Federalists; visioned a more industrial based nation with a strong federal government
lived from 1751 to 1836; fourth President of the United States (1809-1817); "Father of the Constitution"; member of the Republican Party, which envisioned a more modest federal government and a more rural and agrarian society
convention held in Annapolis, Maryland from September 11-14, 1786 to discuss the reversal of trade barriers; report from convention asked support for a broader constitutional convention
took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain. Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The US Constitution was created during this gathering.
was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral (meaning the split of legistlative branch into two distinguishable houses or chambers; ie: the HOE and Senate) legislative branch. The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for a quorum to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787
New Jersey Plan
was a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention on June 15, 1787. The plan was created in response to the Virginia Plan, which called for two houses of Congress, both elected with apportionment according to population. Opposed by James Madison
was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by Roger Sherman, along with proportional representation in the lower house, but required the upper house to be weighted equally between the states. Each state would have two representatives in the upper house.
compromise proposed at the Constitutional Convention; debate was over whether, and if so, how, slaves would be counted when determining a state's total population for legislative representation and taxing purposes. The issue was important, as this population number would then be used to determine the number of seats that the state would have in the United States House of Representatives for the next ten years. The effect was to give the southern states a third more seats in Congress and a third more electoral votes than if slaves had been ignored
the institution that elects the President and Vice President of the United States every four years. Voting U.S. citizens do not directly elect the President and Vice President; instead, these voters directly elect designated intermediaries called "electors," who almost always have pledged to vote for particular presidential and vice presidential candidates
Checks and balances
is used to keep the government from getting too powerful in one branch. For example, the Executive Branch can veto bills from the Legislative Branch, but the Legislative Branch can override the veto.
first American political party that supported ideas straight from the Constitution; called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain, as well as opposition to revolutionary France
opposed the federalists; agreed in more power within the states, which exercised sectionalism
collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay (under the pseudonym Publius) promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution.
issued by the treasury and American government after the Revolution
First Two Party System
a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system existing in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. It featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party, created largely by Alexander Hamilton, and the rival Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
a tax protest on this beverage from the newly formed federalist government under Washingtons presidency, taxes used to help pay off war debt
Washington's Farewell Address
a letter written by Washington towards the end of his presidency; a classic statement of republicanism, warning Americans of the political dangers they can and must avoid if they are to remain true to their values.
a french ambassador who visited the US, in search of US support for the French in the revolution; caused controversy on foreign policy.
a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France
was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States of America and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800. After the toppling of the French crown during its revolutionary wars, the United States refused to continue repaying its debt to France on the grounds that it had been owed to a previous regime.
Bill of Rights
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
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