Chapter 2: Early Jazz
Terms in this set (39)
A short pause in a band's playing-usually one or two bars-to feature a soloists. Often a band will play in stop time while the soloist improvises breaks between the band's chord's.
A common, informal term for a written music arrangement.
A type of New Orleans-style jazz created but Chicago musicians in the 1920s.
Italian for "tail", a coda provides an optional, concluding section of an arrangement, added for greater finality.
The term often applied to the simultaneous improvising of the New Orleans (Dixieland) jazz ensemble.
A sperate line that runs in counterpoint to the main melody. Is a secondary melody that accompanies the main melody. Generally heard on a trombone and is often improvised. AKA countermine
Creoles of Color
People of mixed black and white ancestry, often from New Orleans. Until the late nineteenth century, they enjoyed more freedom and were better educated than the general black population.
Dixieland jazz or Dixieland
A technique whereby notes are slurred directly from one to another, producing a continous rise and fall in pitch
A period-roughly 1921 to 1929-of outstanding artistic activity among African Americans. The movement centered in Harlem, NYC.
A musical plan and form worked up verbally by the players in rehearsal or on the bandstand.
Jazz bands that featured fast tempos and dramatic solo and group performances, usually with more improvisation than sweet bands had.
The jazz technique of playing melodic lines that favor the principal notes of the harmonies.
The technique of playing notes smoothly in a connected manner. The opposite is staccato
Device played in or over the bell of a brass instrument to alter its tone.
New Orleans jazz
The jazz style that originated in NEw Orleans and flourished in the late 1910s and 1920s. Had a front line of trumpet, trombone and clarinet accompanied by a rhythm section of piano, guitar or banjo bass and drums.
A complementary melodic part played at the same time as the main melody. In jazz, the obbligato part is usually improvised. In early jazz, obbligato parts were often florid, usually played by the clarinet, and sometimes improvised.
The final chorus of a jazz performance. When exuberant, it may be called a shout chorus.
The jazz technique of playing notes that depart from the chords of a given piece.
A piano equipped with a mechanism that allows it to payer piano rolls
A type of mute derived from a plumber's sink lunger. The rubber cup of the instrument and manipulated with the left hand to alter the horn't tone quality.
An informal gathering in the 1920s, held to help raise money for rent or groceries. At these parties, musicians often gathered and performed sometimes in competition with one another.
A short melodic idea, usually one or two bars long, that is repeated as the core idea of a musical passage. Different band sections sometimes trade riffs in a call-and-response format. Usually rhythmic and simple, the riff can also provide an effective background for an improvising soloist.
A jazz vocal style in which the soloist improvises using made-up or nonsense syllables.
Section (of a band)
A group of related instruments in a big band.
The climactic chorus of a jazz performance; it often occurs at the end of a piece, in which case it also an out-chorus
Someone who performed a song, usually at a music store, to encourage people to buy the sheet music.
A Prohibition-era nightclub in which liquor was sold illegally.
The technique of playing short notes with distinct spaces between them.
An arrangement created and sold by a publishing company to bandleaders. Bands played stock arrangements to keep up with the latests hit songs.
The punctuation of distinct beats, often to accommodate a soloist's improvisation between the band's chords
A school of jazz piano playing based on a moving left-hand accompaniment of alternating bass notes and chords with appropriate right-hand figuration that seems to pull at the left-hand rhythm to impart swing
A musical form f the classical European tradition usually containing several sections, each with distinctive melodies and moods. The sections may or may not be related thematically. Often composers will extract the most popular or most effective sections form extended works, such as operas or ballets to create a suite for concert performance
Bands that played relatively less-syncopated, slower pieces such as ballads and popular songs.
A brief coda added to the end of a composition to give it closure
The New Orleans style of playing trombone with chromatic glissandos created by a rapid up-and-down motion of the slide. Jazz mythology relates that the trombonist played in the back-on the tailgate- of the New Orleans advertising wagons when the bands traveled during of the day to advertise their upcoming dances.
A vibrato added to the end of a sustained note
Tin Pan Alley
The collective name applied to the major New York City sheet music publishers. Tin Pan Alley flourished from the late 1800s until the mid-twentieth century
A method of varying the pitch frequency of a note, producing a wavering sound. A vibrato brings a note to life. It is heard mostly on wind instruments, strings, and vocals.
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