Reproduction & Meiosis
Terms in this set (6)
What are the pros and cons for asexual reproduction?
What 3 things is genetic variability due to in sexual reproduction?
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have? How many individual chromosomes do humans have?
23 pairs or 46 total chromosomes.
Describe each of the stages of meiosis.
PROPHASE I: The cell gets the signal to divide and copies the genetic material, forming a tetrad, named so because it contains four chromatids. The original nucleus dissolves.
METAPHASE I: The tetrads begin to attach to the spindle apparatus and move to the center of the cell.
ANAPHASE I: The spindle apparatus drags one of each copy of the genetic material to opposite sides of the cell. At this point, the cell is beginning to stretch out.
TELOPHASE I: Nuclear envelopes form around each set of genetic material. The cell splits, forming two daughter cells.
PROPHSE II: The nuclear envelope dissolves again in each of the daughter cells. If the spindle apparatus has dissolved, it re-forms.
METAPHASE II: The chromosomes attach to the spindles again and line up at the center again.
ANAPHASE II: Two chromatids of each chromosome are pulled apart and are pulled to the opposite ends of the cell.
TELOPHASE II: New nuclear envelopes form, and both cells split, creating a total of four cells in all.
What is a tetrad?
A four-part structure that forms during prophase I of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two identical chromatids.
What is crossing over?
The process of homologous chromosomes exchanging segments that result in a re-arrangement of genetic information.
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