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DSST Principles of Statistics
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Terms in this set (58)
Inductive Statistics
enable you to make conclusions and decisions based on data
Descriptive Statistics
-do NOT make conclusions or inferences based on data
-meant to describe and analyze a group without making a decision
Variable
a characteristic which describes an individual
Quantitative Variable
a variable which can be expressed in terms of a numerical value
Qualitative Variable
-variable which cannot be expressed in terms of a numerical value
-described in terms of category
-AKA categorical values
Response Variable
-AKA dependent variable
-influenced by the other variable
-y-axis
Explanatory Variable
-AKA independent variable
-variable which it is believed explains the change in a response variable
-x-axis
Population
group which a study or experiment is meant to determine information about
Sample
group within a population which is used to determine information about the population
Observational Study
-consists of observing individuals and collecting data, but not influencing the individuals in any way
-done using sample populations to draw conclusions
Experiment
imposing a treatment on an individual or group and observing the response to it
Census
gathers information about every individual in a sample
Convenience Sample
-consist of sampling the people who are easiest to reach
-highly biased
Voluntary Response Samples
-samples in which the participants choose themselves
-highly biased
The more ______ a sample is, the less biased the results will be
random
3 types of random samples:
-simple random sample
-stratified random sample
-cluster sample
Simple Random Sample
participants are chosen out of the population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen
Stratified Random Sample
-population is divided in to groups called strata with similarities
-conducted in each strata
Cluster Sample
population is divided into clusters, then a random sample of clusters is chosen and all of the members of each cluster participate
Block Design
-type of experiment which divides subjects into predetermined groups, which are known or suspected to affect the results
-groups within each block are assigned different treatments
Matched Pairs Design
experimental subjects are matched in pairs so that two similar subjects are paired with each other, and each given a different treatment
Double Blind Experiment
experiment in which the subjects do not know what treatment they are receiving, and the people administering do not know which patients are receiving which treatments either
What is helpful about the double blind experiment?
it removes effects such as the experimenter bias and the placebo effect
Histograms are a type of ___________ _________
frequency distribution
Frequency Distributions
allow us to categorize a vast amount of data with each category having a frequency which is the number of data in that category
Class Interval
upper and lower limit for each category
Size of Interval
determined by finding the difference between the upper and lower limit for the category
Class Mark
-located at the midpoint of the class interval
Histograms are composed of a set of rectangles that have (4):
1- bases on the X-axis
2-centers at the class marks
3-lengths equal to the class interval sizes
4-areas proportional to the class frequencies
Quartiles represent:
different components of the data set
Lower Quartile (LQ)
is a number such that 25% of the numbers in the data set are no larger than this number
Second Quartile
-median
Median
middle value or the arithmetic mean of the middle values
Upper Quartile (UQ)
is a number such that at least 75% of the numbers in the data set are no larger than this number
Normal approximation for data
-refers to approximating data in a histogram based on the normal curve if the data values are converted to standard units
-the area under the histogram over various regions is equal to the area of the normal curve over the same region
Box Plot
a graph of the five number summary of a set of data
Five Number Summary
minimum, first quartile, median (second quartile), third quartile, maximum
The box in a box plot is used to represent:
interquartile range (IQR)
Interquartile Range (IQR)
range from the first quartile to the third quartile (Q3-Q1)
1.5 X IQR Rule
used to determine outliers
Stem and Leaf Plot
type of display method for single variable analysis
What are stem and leaf plots used for?
a quick method of displaying the general shape of the data, while still incorporating the actual numerical values
Standard Deviation
-relates data points to the Mean of the sample data set
-average amount away from the mean the data points are
-measure of spread
-represented by either s or σ
How to find Standard Deviation:
-work out the Mean (the simple average of the numbers)
-then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the result (the squared difference).
-then work out the average of those squared differences.
Variance
the average of the squared differences from the Mean
Probability
the likelihood that an event will occur expressed as the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes in the set of outcomes divided by the total number of possible outcomes
Outcome
result of an experiment or other situation involving uncertainty
Event
a collection of outcomes
Conditional Probability
-deals with dependent events
-AKA compound probability
Dependent Events
two events are dependent if the outcome of one event depends on the outcome of the other event
Mutually Exclusive Events
two events that can NOT happen at the same time
Sample Space
set of all possible outcomes
Each possible outcome is called an ______
event
Multiplication Principle
states that if two tasks are independent, and you can do task one x number of ways, and task two y number of ways, then the number of ways the two can be done together is x times y.
Addition Rule
if two events are disjoint, or if they cannot occur at the same time, then you add the probability of the events
Complement
the event that a specific event will not occur
Complement Rule
complement of a certain probability is probability that something does not happen
Multiplication Rule
...
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