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Hypodermic/Bullet Theory

Originated in America in the 1920's, Payne Fund Studies Group and Frankfurt School

Uses and Gratification Theory

Originated in America in the 1940's, devised by Paul Lazarfeld and the Structural Functionist School, researched further by Blumler and Katz in 1974

Reinforcement Theory

Originated from Joseph Klapper's book, The Effects of Mass Communication, in 1960

Agenda Setting Function Theory

Proposed by Stuart Hall and Raymond Williams at the Birmingham School in the UK, in the 1970's

Hypodermic/Bullet Theory

Suggests that media texts are 'closed' and therefore no interpretation, other than the original undiluted message, can be made

Uses and Gratification Theory

Suggests that the media has no power of the audience what so ever. The text is regarded as 'open' and the audience can determine the media they wish to consume

Reinforcement Theory

Suggests that the media simply reinforces opinions an audience already has about the 'world' and that for the audience to truly be influenced by the media they must be exposed to its subject for the first time by the media

Agenda Setting Function Theory

The media has the power to place ideas in their messages for people to deconstruct.The media cannot tell us what to think, but can tell us what to think about


Have yet to develop the skills to successfully challenge what they are seeing


Tend to be more passive in their viewing habits, far more impressionable


Biggest users of media


Traditionally been in the home, so had 24/7 access


Vulnerable when exposed to texts that affect how they think about themselves

The Elderly

Most likely to take offence at media content

The Office of Film and Literature Classification

Classifies films and literature on behalf of states

Protecting Children

May be considered more important than total free speech for adults

Children's media exposure

Impossible for parents to have full control over

National problem

Excessivley violent material, pornography, or material that incites crimes or hatred

Media consumption

Parent's responsibilty to limit the child's exposure to

Slippery Slope

Used to describe government regulation of free speech in the media


The borderless media envrionment created by the internet

Betty King v Underbelly

Example of alternative approach to regulation

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