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Media Influence

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Hypodermic/Bullet Theory
Originated in America in the 1920's, Payne Fund Studies Group and Frankfurt School
Uses and Gratification Theory
Originated in America in the 1940's, devised by Paul Lazarfeld and the Structural Functionist School, researched further by Blumler and Katz in 1974
Reinforcement Theory
Originated from Joseph Klapper's book, The Effects of Mass Communication, in 1960
Agenda Setting Function Theory
Proposed by Stuart Hall and Raymond Williams at the Birmingham School in the UK, in the 1970's
Hypodermic/Bullet Theory
Suggests that media texts are 'closed' and therefore no interpretation, other than the original undiluted message, can be made
Uses and Gratification Theory
Suggests that the media has no power of the audience what so ever. The text is regarded as 'open' and the audience can determine the media they wish to consume
Reinforcement Theory
Suggests that the media simply reinforces opinions an audience already has about the 'world' and that for the audience to truly be influenced by the media they must be exposed to its subject for the first time by the media
Agenda Setting Function Theory
The media has the power to place ideas in their messages for people to deconstruct.The media cannot tell us what to think, but can tell us what to think about
Children
Have yet to develop the skills to successfully challenge what they are seeing
Children
Tend to be more passive in their viewing habits, far more impressionable
Women
Biggest users of media
Women
Traditionally been in the home, so had 24/7 access
Women
Vulnerable when exposed to texts that affect how they think about themselves
The Elderly
Most likely to take offence at media content
The Office of Film and Literature Classification
Classifies films and literature on behalf of states
Protecting Children
May be considered more important than total free speech for adults
Children's media exposure
Impossible for parents to have full control over
National problem
Excessivley violent material, pornography, or material that incites crimes or hatred
Media consumption
Parent's responsibilty to limit the child's exposure to
Slippery Slope
Used to describe government regulation of free speech in the media
unenforceable
The borderless media envrionment created by the internet
Betty King v Underbelly
Example of alternative approach to regulation