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Honors History 1 with Duggins

Great Study Guide for Honors World History 1 with Duggins
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Seljuk Turks
Muslim people from Central Asia, gained land in Palestine
Pope Urban II
Pope that called for a Christian Crusade against the forces of Islam in 1095 c.e.
Crusades
Series of military expeditions to regain Holy Land
First Crusade
Date 1096-1099, Crusaders captured Jerusalem from Turks
Second Crusade
1147-1149, Crusaders head back to Europe defeated and ashamed
Saladin
Muslim leader in the 3rd Crusade
Hanseatic League
League of trade cities in Germany which helped regulate trade
Barter Economy
Goods and services exchanged for other goods and services without the use of money
Domestic System
Manufacturing that took place in homes rather than a workplace
Usury
Charging interest on loans, the Church did not allow this practice
Capital
Wealth that is earned, saved, and invested to make profits
Market Economy
Land, Labor, and Capital are all controlled by individual persons
Freedom, Exemption, Town Justice, Commercial Priveliges
The rights given to townspeople (specific)
Merchant guild
Merchants and workers began to associate into units
Craft Guilds
Skilled workers came together in these for development of a certain product
Apprentice
A worker for a master who learns under him
Journeyman
A skilled worker who was paid wages by a master
Merchants and Master Workers
Made up the majority of the middle class
Black Death
Plague that spread throughout Europe in 1347-1351
Vernacular Languages
Everyday speech that varied but very common
Troubadours
Traveling singers who wrote poems about love and chivalry
Dante Alighieri (Dante)
Italian poet who wrote The Divine Comedy
Geoffrey Chaucer
English poet who wrote The Canterbury Tales
Scholasticism
Attempt to bring faith and reason together
Peter Abelard
Philosopher of scholasticism, wrote "Sic et Non"
Thomas Aquinas
Monk who wrote "Summa Theologiae"
Gothic
Type of church design that developed in the mid-1100's and stood to heaven
Hundred Years War
War that erupted when English king Edward III held land in France that made him a vassal to the French King
Edward III and Philip VI
After France's Capetian line died out, these two men both tried to take over the throne
House Of Commons
Part of English parliament which gained power after the Hundred Years War
War Of The Roses
War between the York and Lancaster families in 1455
Henry Tudor
House of Lancaster man who claimed English throne in 1485 and defeated King Richard III
Joan Of Arc
Helped Charles VII to be crowned king of France, was burned at stake
Louis XI
Followed Charles VII as king of France, helped strengthen monarchy
First Estate
Estate of France that held clergy
Second Estate
Estate of France that held Nobles
Third Estate
Estate of France that held common people
Ferdinand and Isabella
Spain became a nation in 1479 under these two
Three archbishops and four German Princes
Emperor Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire ruled that these electors would choose the emperor
Habsburg
Important family that was not too powerful but used marriage to gain control and power in Europe
Innocent III
Strong pope from 1198-1216
King Philip IV of France
Ordered that clergy should pay taxes in France
Pope Boniface VIII
In 1302, decreed that popes were the only ones with power which went against Philip IV
Babylonian Captivity
Years that popes lived in Avignon during 1309-1377
Great Schism
The church began to split into different rulers and opposing groups
John Wycliffe
Priest and teacher who attacked church
Jan Hus
Criticized church, was excomunicated and killed