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Terms in this set (64)

Egalitarian societies No individual or group has more access to resources, power, or prestige than any other.No fixed number of social positions for which individuals must complete.Typically associated with bands and tribes

Stratified society: Formal, permanent, social, and economic inequality. Characterized by difference in standard of living, security, prestige, and political power. Economically organized by market systems. Based on intensive cultivation (agriculture) and market/industrial economies. Associated with form of political organization called the state

Caste: A form of social stratification linked with Hinduism and based on a person's birth into a particular group
Higher ranked castes subject dietary taboos to retain purity. Highest on purity scale - Brahmins. Lowest - untouchables - in touch with polluting substances

Class:The hierarchical distinctions between social groups are usually based on wealth, occupation, and social standing.

The socioeconomic "accident of birth" has profound consequences for education, occupation, class mobility, and place of residence.

In earlier times, there was less recognition of the "luck" factor. Americans equated lower socioeconomic status with biological inferiority and lesser intelligence, thus naturalizing wealth and the capacity to acquire it.

Ethnicity:Social category based on a complex
mix of ancestry, culture, and self-identification.Members of ethnic groups emphasize familial metaphors and shared "blood," establishing group identity and distinctness from other groups.

Primordialism: a social theory that ethnicity is largely a natural phenomenon because of biological (i.e., "primordial"), linguistic, and geographical ties among members.

Instrumentalism: a social theory that ethnic groups are not naturally occurring or stable but highly dynamic groups created to serve the interests of one powerful group or another

Achieved status A person's standing in society based on qualities that the person has gained through action - Education or Employment

Ascribed status A person's standing in a society based on qualities gained through birth
- Royal, impoverished, family fortune