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bio. final exam
Terms in this set (150)
science differs from other disciplines, such as history and the arts, because science relies on...
science is best described as a....
way of knowing
the work of scientists usually begins with...
information gathered from observing a plant grow 3 cm over a two-week period is called...
based on your observations, you suggest that the presence of water could accelerate the growth of bread mold. this is a....
a scientific hypothesis...
can be tested by experiments or observations
during a controlled experiment, a scientist isolates and tests...
a single variable
a student sees a bee on a flower. the student wonders how the bee finds the flower. this student is displaying the scientific attitude of...
what dies a reviewer do during peer-review?
check for mistakes and bias
a well-tested explanation that explains a lot of observations is...
a personal preference or point of view is...
which of the following characteristics of living things best explains why some north american birds fly south for the winter?
living things respond to their environment
the process by which organisms keep everything inside of their bodies within certain limits is called...
the three particles that make up atoms are...
protons, neutrons, and electrons
what are found in the space surround the nuclear of an atom?
a covalent bond is formed as the result of..
a solution is a...
mixture in which the sub trances are evenly spread out
when salt is dissolved in water, water is the...
a substance with a pH of 6 is called...
the energy needed to get a reaction started is the...
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction is called...
the branch of biology dealing with interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment is called....
the lowest level of environmental complexity that includes living and nonliving factors is the...
which of the following is NOT a basic method used by ecologists to study the living world?
how do most primary producers make their own food?
by using light energy to make carbohydrates
the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called the...
a model of the complex feeding interactions among organisms in a community from producers to decompress is called...
a food web
what animals eat both producers and consumers?
a word that means the same thing as consumer is...
the repeated movement of water between Earth's surface and the atmosphere is called...
the water cycle
organisms need nutrients in order to...
carry out essential life functions
animals that get energy by eating the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died from natural causes are called...
what is the base of all ecological pyramids?
the average conditions of the atmosphere in a particular area are referred to as the area's...
the greenhouse effect is...
a natural phenomenon that maintains Earth's temperature range
the tendency for warm air to rise and cool air to sink results in...
global wind patterns
why is an organism's niche like a person's occupation?
an organism can "make a living" and survive in it's niche
an organism's niche is...
the range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way it obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce
polar bears live in the arctic. the arctic is their...
an interaction in which an animal feeds on plants is called...
a wolf pack hunts, kills, and feeds on a moose. in this interaction, the wolves are...
a predator is an animal that...
kills and eats other animals
a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit is..
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism is harmed and the other benefits is...
primary succession would most likely occur after...
a lava flow
a tropical rain forest may be unable to returned to its original climax community after which of the following disturbances?
clearing and farming
an example of a human-caused disturbance is...
a wetland that contains a picture of fresh water and salt water is called an....
estuaries are commercially important because...
fish species that people buy and sell live in estuaries
the patterns of spacing between individuals across the range of a population is its...
if you know the range of a population, then you know...
the areas that are inhabited by the population
which of the following gives you information about a population's age structure?
there are 10 males and 15 female under the age of two
which of the following is NOT one of the factors that play a role in population growth rate?
the movement of organisms into a range is called...
which are two ways a population can decrease in size?
decreased birthrate and emigration
the various growth phases through which most populations go are represented on...
a logistic growth curve
as resources in a population become less available, the population...
reaches carrying capacity
something that controls the growth or size of a population is...
a limiting factor
in countries like india, the human population is growing...
an example of a renewable resource is...
which of the following is true about nonrenewable resources?
they cannot be replaced after they are used up
the 1930s dust bowl in the great plains was caused by...
poor farming practices
farmers can reduce soil erosion by...
the gray-brown haze often found over larger cities is called...
introduced species can threaten biodiversity because they can...
crowd out native species
one of he greatest threats today to biodiversity is...
an ecological hot spot is an area where...
many habitats and species are at high risk of extinction
one measure of the human impact on the biosphere is called...
an ecological footprint
the first step into using ecology to solve environmental problems is to...
identify the problem
who used a compound microscope to see chambers within cork and named them "cells"?
what advance in technology made the discovery of cells possible?
colors seen in images made from election microscopes are...
added to make certain structures easier to see
which of the following enclose their DNA in a nucleus?
which of the following organisms are prokaryotes?
which of the following is a function of the nucleus?
which organelle breaks down organelles that are no longer useful?
which of the following is a function of the cytoskeleton?
helps a cell keep its shape
which structures are involved in cell movement?
microtubules and microfilaments
which structures make proteins using coded instructions that com from the nucleus?
which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use?
which organelle would you expect to find in plant cells but not animals cells?
the primary function of the cell wall is to...
support and protect the cell
which of the following structures serves as the cell's boundary from its environment?
the cell membrane contains channels and pumps that help move materials from one side to the other. what are these channels and pumps made of?
the diffusion of water across selectively permeable membrane is called...
which of the following is an example of an organ?
a group of similar cells that perform a particular function is called...
what are the three parts of an ATP molecule?
adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups
energy is released from ATP when...
a phosphate group is removed
organisms, such as plants, that make their own food are called...
organisms that cannot make their own food and must obtain energy from external sources are called...
which of the following organisms makes its own food using light energy from the sun?
what happens during photosynthesis?
autotrophs produce carbohydrates
plants gather energy with light-absorbing molecules called...
plants get the energy they need for photosynthesis by absorbing...
most plants appear green because chlorophyll...
does not absorb green light
a student is collection the gas given off from a plant in bright sunlight at a temperature of 27ºC. the gas being collected is probably...
photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into...
oxygen and high-energy sugars
which of the following is NOT found in the overall reaction for photosynthesis?
how do organisms get the energy they need?
by breaking down food molecules gradually and capturing their chemical energy
cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down...
cellular respiration is called an aerobic process because it requires...
as a cell becomes larger, its...
volume increases faster than its surface area
the rate at which wastes are produced by a cell partially depends on the cell's...
compared to small cells, large cells have more trouble...
moving needed materials in and waste products out
which of the following happens when a cell divides?
each daughter cell receives its own copy of the parent cell's DNA
the process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells is called...
which of the following lists structures from smallest to largest?
double helix, nucleosome, coil, supercoil, chromosome
during which phase in the cell cycle does mitosis happen?
which event occurs during interphase?
the structure labeled A in figure 10-5 is called the...
the structures labeled B in figure 10-5 are called...
which of the following is a phase of mitosis?
the first phase of mitosis is called...
during which phase of mitosis of the chromosomes line up along the middle of the diving cell?
which of the following represents the phases of mitosis in their proper sequence?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
what is the role of the spindle fibers during mitosis?
they help separate the chromosomes
the two main stages of cell division are called...
mitosis and cytokinesis
one difference between cell division in plant cells and in animal cells is that plant cells have...
a cell plate
the different forms of a gene are called...
Gregor Mendel removed the male parts from the flowers of some plants in order to...
control crosses between plants
when G. M. crossed a tall plant with a short plant, the f1 plants inherited...
one allele from each parent
if a pea plant's alleles for height are tt, what is true of its parents?
both parents contributes a recessive allele
when you flip a coin, what is the probability that it will come up tails?
the principles of probability can be used to...
predict the traits of offspring of genetic crosses
organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be...
what principle states that during gamete formation genes for different traits separate without influencing each other's inheritance?
principle of independent assortment
G. M's principles of genetics apply to...
griffith called the process he observed transformation because...
the harmless bacteria had been transformed
what did avery conclude caused transformation?
DNA was the transforming factor
what property of DNA does bacterial transformation illustrate?
bacterial DNA can move into another bacteria and function
griffith;s experiments advanced the study of genetic by proving that...
there is a chemical that contains genetic information that can be passed from one organism to another
what do bacteriophages infect?
what stores information in a cell?
because of base pairing in DNA, the percentage of...
thymine molecules in DNA is about equal to the percentage of adenine molecules
rosalind franklin contributed to the understanding of DNA by...
producing images of DNA molecules using x-rays
which of the following forms a base pair with thymine?
how many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype?
human males have...
one X and one Y chromosome
Darwin noticed that many organisms seem well suited to...
surviving in the environments in which they lived
on the galapagos islands, darwin observed...
species similar to mainland south american species
which of the following idea is supported by darwin's observation of local variation among tortoises in the galapagos islands?
darwin first began to formulate his concept of evolution by natural selection after...
observing patterns among the geographical location of certain species
james hutton's and charles Lyell's work suggests that...
earth is several million years old
in the late 1800s, Lyell emphasized that...
past geological events must be explained in terms of processes observable today.
what did darwin learn from reading the work of Hutton and Lyell?
gradual change operating over long periods of time can result in dramatic changes
Lamarck proposed that organisms...
have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection
the economist Thomas Malthus suggested that...
without certain checks on population size, there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population
Darwin realized the the economist Malthus's theory of population control...
could be generalized to any population of organisms
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