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32 terms

ART History study guide Exam 2 (Greek and Roman art)

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Krater
an ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water
Kouros
An archaic Greek standing statue of a naked male.
Arete
in early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to win in a struggle or contest
Kore
an Archaic Greek statue of a standing, draped female
Canon
a rule or especially body of rules or principles generally established as valid and fundamental in a field or art or philosophy
Pudica
one hand covering female areas; modest Venus pose
Mosaic
art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
Foreshortening
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.
Geometric Period
900-700 BCE, a phase in greek art known for its geometric motifs in vase painting
Orientalizing Period
700-600 BCE, During this period, the Greeks began incorporating exotic motifs into their native art, perhaps to cater to the aesthetics to the east.
Archaic Period
the period of Greek art from 900 to 500 BC. It was the earliest period of great vase painting and the beginning of monumental stone sculpture
Classical Period
480-320 BC, "middle" period of ancient Greek civilization, began around 480 BCE to 350 BCE; emphasizes rational order, balance, harmony, restraint, art of ancient Greece and Rome for models.
Hellenistic Period
323-31 BCE, time where Greek art and culture merge with influences from the Middle East; culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests
Stylobate
The uppermost course of the platform of a Greek temple, which supports the columns.
Stereobate
In Greek architecture, the stepped base on which a temple stands.
Entablature
(architecture) the structure consisting of the part of a classical temple above the columns between a capital and the roof
Triglyphs
was an element of the Doric frieze separating two consecutive metopes and divided into three sections
Architrave
the bottom element in an entablature, beneath the frieze and the cornice
metope
The carved or painted rectangular panel between the triglyphs of a Doric frieze
cornice
The uppermost, projecting portion of an entablature, also the crowning
Doric Order
characterized by unadorned capitals, columns without bases, and a frieze of triglyphs and metopes
Ionic Order
characterized by volutes (spiral, scroll-like form), capitals, columns with bases, uninterrupted frieze, base
Corinthian Order
The last and most ornate of the Greek orders (very similar to the Ionic order)- contains a base, a fluted column shaft, and the capital is elaborate and decorated with leaf carvings (Usually Acanthus)
Entasis
swelling on vertical columns to counteract optical illusion of concavity.
Tumulus
burial mound; in Etruscan architecture, tumuli cover one or more subterranean multichambered tombs cut out of the local tufa
Sarcophagus
an ancient marble or stone coffin, often decorated with artwork and inscriptions
Cista
An Etruscan cylindrical container made of sheet bronze with cast handles and feet, often with elaborately engraved bodies, used for women's toilet articles.
Verism
often used by the Romans in marble sculptures of heads. often described as "warts and all", shows the imperfections of the subject, such as warts, wrinkles and furrows.
Engaged Columns
a column embedded in a wall and partly projecting from the surface of the wall
Forum
public square of an ancient Roman city; public place for open discussion; court of law
Atrium
The court of a Roman house that is partly open to the sky. Also the open, colonnaded court in front of and attached to a Christian basilica.
Peristyle Garden
Open colonnaded court with a garden and pool found in ancient Roman homes.