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These are the terms for the Chapter 10 Term Quiz in Mrs. Ray's AP History class. Please comment if you have any corrections to offer.

Middle Ages

Period after pre-classical era after Roman Empire fall


Type of architecture with vaulted arches and towers


Seagoing people of Scandinavia who ruptured life from Ireland to Sicily


System of economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers


Agricultural workers who received some protection from owners of manor


Curved iron plate on a plow

Three-Feild System

System where 1/3 of the land was left unplanted every year to regain fertility


Warrior chieftain who converted to Christianity 496 C.E. to gain prestige over local rivals


New family who took over empire that was based in France, Belgium, and Western Germany

Charles Martel

A founder of Carolingian line who defeated Muslims in the Battle of Tours 732 C.E.


Another Carolingian rule (Charles the Great) who established a substantial empire in France and Germany around 800 C.E.

Holy Roman Emperors

Name given to rulers after Charlemagne fell merging Christian and classical claims


Military relationships in Western Europe


Lesser lords who were protected by greater lords


ruling family in France that helped gain influence 10th century onward

William the Conqueror

Duke who extended his tight feudal system in his new kingdom

Magna Carta

Confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims


Body representing not individual voters but privileged groups such as nobles and the church

Hundred Years War

Long battle between France and England

Pope Urban II

Called for first Crusade against Muslims in 1095

St. Clare of Assisi

Exemplified spirit of purity and dedication to the church

Gregory VII

Reform-minded pope who tried to purify the church and free it from interference by feudal lords

Peter Abeland

Wrote a treatise called "Yes or No" in 12th century

St. Bernard of Clairvaux

Powerful monk who challenged Abeland

Thomas Aquinas

Italian born monk who taught at the University of Paris


Dominant medieval philosophical approach was called because of its base in the schools


Minstrels who were treated like royalty

Hanseatic League

Cities that joined together in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia to encourage trade

Jacques Coeur

One of Europe's most extraordinary merchants


Groups of people of the same business or trade into a single city

Black Death

Devastating plague that persisted for several hundred years in Europe

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