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Another Carolingian rule (Charles the Great) who established a substantial empire in France and Germany around 800 C.E.
Holy Roman Emperors
Name given to rulers after Charlemagne fell merging Christian and classical claims
Body representing not individual voters but privileged groups such as nobles and the church
Reform-minded pope who tried to purify the church and free it from interference by feudal lords
Dominant medieval philosophical approach was called because of its base in the schools
Cities that joined together in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia to encourage trade
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