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Terms in this set (31)
What was the purpose of Reconstruction?
to rebuild the south after the civil war and to help the south become apart of the union again
Successes of Reconstruction:
reunification of the union, more laws, education, compromise of 1877, expansion of north and south economy, enforcement act of 1877
Failures of Reconstruction:
KKK, poverty, sharecropping and tenant farming, taxes, jim crow laws
Phase 1: Presidential Reconstruction
in 1865 President Andrew Johnson implemented Reconstruction plan to help transition from slavery to freedom but gave no role to blacks in politics in the south
a farmer especially in the southern U.S. who raises crops for the owner of a piece of land and is paid a portion of the money from the sale of the crops
laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt
U.S federal government agency to aid freed slaves in the South during Reconstruction
abolished slavery in the US and expanded civil rights
anyone born in the US was considered a citizen, direct reaction to the black codes, no state could deny citizens equal protection under the law
citizens can vote regardless of their race
Civil Rights Act 1866
granted citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude."
Military Rights Act 1867
The act applied to all the ex-Confederate states in the South, except Tennessee who had already ratified the Fourteenth Amendment. It split the states into five military districts, each under the control of a Northern General whose responsibility it was to protect life and property. The First Reconstruction Act also demanded the need for new state delegates and constitutions, the ratification of the Fourteenth amendment, and the provisions of equal rights for each citizen. The most radical aspect of the Act was the enfranchisement of all citizens, except ex-Confederates, and so provided for the coming of black suffrage
Civil Rights Act 1875
a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction Era to guarantee African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and to prohibit exclusion from jury service
Enforcements Act of 1870-1871
gave blacks equal rights and dealt with the government having authority to punish those that prevented blacks from using their rights (specifically the kkk), they decided it was unconstitutional, this actually helped the reconstruction because it allowed for the blacks to have equal rights and if they couldn't punish people then it was a free for all
Election of 1876
Hayes (republican) vs. Tilden (democrat), it was a very close election but Hayes won the most electoral votes while Tilden won the most popular votes
Compromise of 1877
Republican Hayes will be given presidency if he agrees to take all the military out of the south to win over the southern states and win the election
Once Hayes agrees and he takes the military out of the south, it is officially the end of reconstruction
Put decision making back into the hands of the states and federal government couldn't intervene/ states got to manage reconstruction themselves
Blacks had to pass a literacy test in order to vote. However many whites could not even pass it. Used to keep people of color -- and, sometimes, poor whites -- from voting
Tax to pay to vote - Used in the south during and after reconstruction as means to find a way around the 14th amendment and denying the civil right
If your grandfather couldn't vote or if he was a slave then you couldn't vote
A law that allowed white voters to find a way around literacy tests, poll taxes, and other tactics designed to disfranchise the southern blacks
Southern legislatures, former confederates, passed laws known as the black codes, after the war, which severely limited the rights of blacks and segregated them from whites. Segregation was supported by the legal system and police.
Jim Crow Laws
Acts that legalized segregation, a system of laws and customs that enforced racial segregation and discrimination throughout the United States, especially in the South
Practice of killing, most frequently against African Americans in the South
Movement that supported white supremacy, and white nationalism. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South during the Reconstruction Era, especially by using violence against African American leaders.
American white supremacist terrorist organization started in 1874 to turn Republicans out of office and intimidate freedmen from voting and political organizing
Brown vs Board of Education
unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
program implemented by the federal government between 1865 and 1877 to repair damage to the South caused by the Civil war and restore the southern states to the Union
Short Term Effects of Reconstruction
provided education and job opportunities for freed slaves and poor whites, Change in government in the South, Drop of the southern economy because of a lack of slave labor
Long Term Effects of Recontruction
African Americans gaining the right to vote, Long lasting racial tensions, Growth of communities that had mostly or all African Americans
Plessy vs Ferguson 1896
laws made to promote segregation - seperate but equal
Phase 2: Radical Reconstruction - what was the main purpose of the radical Republicans in Congress?
For the legislature to try to switch the control of the Reconstruction process from the executive branch to the legislature
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