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Terms in this set (66)
What are junctions between two bones called?
What are two function of articulations?
1. Enable movement
2. Bind bones together
What are the three structural classifications of articulations?
What two structural classifications of articulations do no contain a joint cavity?
Fibrous and Cartilaginous
Describe a fibrous articulation.
1. No cavity
2. Connected by fibrous connective tissue
Describe a cartilaginous articulation.
1. No cavity
2. Joined by cartilage
This articulation has a fluid-filled joint cavity, articular cartilage, and many accessory ligaments.
What are the three functional classes of articulations?
Functional articulation that has "no movement"
Functional articulation that has "little movement"
Functional articulation that has "free movement"
What are the 3 joints classified under Synarthrosis?
2. Gomphosis (dentoalveolar)
Thin layer of dense irregular CT (connective tissue) between flat bones. Forms at 18 months and replaces infant fontanel. Coronal suture is an example of this.
Union of cone-shaped bony process in socket. The root of the tooth is attached to periodontal ligament of the socket. Teeth are an example of this.
Gomphosis AKA dentoalveolar (think of gums as goms)
The bone ends bond by bands of hyaline cartilage. Epiphyseal plate temporarily but then morphs into Epiphyseal line when growth stops.The rib articulating with the sternum is an example of this.
What are the 2 joints classified under the articulation Amphiarthrosis?
Describe the Syndesmosis joint. Give an example.
Joints held together by fibrous connective tissue,
allow slight movement.
Example: distal joint between radius and ulna
Describe the Symphysis joint. Give an example.
Bones joined by pad of fibrous cartilage.
Example: pubic symphysis
What is the general structure of Diarthrosis?
Specialized to allow a wide variety of movement,
surrounded by articular capsule composed of dense, regular CT. Includes the synovial membrane.
What is the purpose of the synovial membrane within the Diarthrosis?
1. lines cavity
2.secretes synovial fluid
What is the purpose of the synovial fluid within the synovial membrane?
1. Lubricates joint
2. Nourishes chondrocytes
3. Shock absorber
What are the 3 assesory structures of the Diarthrosis?
1. Meniscus (cartilage) & fat pads
What is the purpose of the meniscus (cartilage) & fat pads?
1. Subdivide cavity
2. Restrict movement
3. Cushion & distributes weight
What Diarthrosis assessory structure has dense regular connective tissue and functions to interconnect bones?
What is the Bursae and what is its function?
Bursae are fluid filled sacks that cushion tendons and joints.
What are the six synovial classifications by movement types for Diarthrosis?
1. Gliding Joint 4. Ellipsoidal (condyloid) Joint
2. Hinge Joint 5. Saddle Joint
3. Pivot Joint 6. Ball and Socket joint
What is a Gliding Joint?
Flat, articulating surfaces, allow side to side or front to back movement only.
What is an example of a gliding joint?
Joints of carpels and tarsals.
What is a Hinge Joint?
Convex into concave surface of another bone, movement in single plane.
What is an example of a hinge joint?
Ulna and humerus
What is a pivot joint?
Cylinder of one bone rotates in ring of another, only permits rotation.
What is an example of a pivot joint?
Atlas and axis
What is a Ellipsoidal (condyloid) Joint?
Ovoid bone end fits into elliptical cavity, permits side to side, back and forth movement.
What is an example of Ellipsoidal (condyloid) Joint?
Proximal phalanges & head of metacarpel.
What is a saddle joint?
Articulating joints are both concave and convex, permits biaxial movement, circumduction.
What is an example of a saddle joint?
Thumb and metacarpels.
What is a ball and socket joint?
Ball shaped head in socket or cup, allow triaxial movement.
What is an example of a ball and socket joint?
Hip and shoulder joints
What are the three types of joint movement?
How many angular joint movements are there? What are they?
SIx. Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion
What is flexion and extension?
Flexion = decrease in joint angle (flexing)
Extension = straighten joint (extending)
What is abduction and adduction?
Abduction = moving part away from body (being abducted away)
Adduction = moving part toward body (adding to the body)
What is dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
Dorsiflexion = flexing foot
Plantar flexion = extending foot
What are the four types of circular joint movements?
1 rotation - turning part on axis (head)
2.circumduction - circular movement of a limb, cone-shaped trace (arms)
3.supination - forearm rotated to palm upward
4.pronation - forearm rotated to palm downward
How many other movements are there?
What is elevation and depression?
Elevation - raising part
Depression - lowering part
What is retraction and protraction?
Protraction - forward movement
Retraction - backward movement
What is eversion and inversion?
Eversion - twisting foot, sole outward
Inversion - twisting foot, sole inward
Name the six Representative Articulations?
4.glenohumeral (shoulder joint)
6.coxal (hip) joint
7.tibiofemoral (knee) joint
Where is the temporomandibular joint? What kind of joint is it?
Mandibular condylar process in temporal fossa. Hinge + gliding joint.
What are the two movements that the hinge and gliding joint of the temporomandibular joint display?
1.elevation and depression
2.protraction and retraction
Separate and cushion adjacent vertebrae.
What is the structure of the intervertebral discs?
1.anulus fibrosus -tough outer layer of fibrous cartilage
2.nucleus pulposus- inner soft gelatinous core
Located on the sternal extremity of clavical and manubrium, it is a gliding joint.
A ball and socket joint with a cylindrical cavity that envelope joint. Ligaments prevent displacement and include several bursae.
Glenohumeral (shoulder joint)
What is an example of a glenohumeral (shoulder joint)?
Head of humerus in glenoid cavity of scapula.
What are two examples of the elbow joint?
1.trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna
2.capitulum of radius and head of ulna
What movements can the elbow joint produce? What kind of joint is it?
Hinge joint, only flexion and extension possible.
Wide variety of movement, socket protected by cartilage.
Coxal (hip) joint
Where is the coxal (hip) joint?
femur head in acetabulum of coxal bone.
What kind of joint is the coxal joint?
ball and socket joint.
This joint contains both bursae and menisci, only flexion and extension are possible.
Tibiofemoral (knee) joint
What two joints make up the tibiofemoral joint?
What kind of joint is the tibiofemoral (knee) joint?
Complete hinge joint
Femur and tibia is a
Femur and patella
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