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AP Euro Kagan Chapter 11

The Great Schism

two popes were chosen; divided europe; damaged church - people didn't knokw who to worship; ended with election of one new pope


Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.

Martin Luther

German theologian who led the Reformation

Johann Tetzel

This Dominican monk was chosen to advertise indulgences in 1517, and did so using extreme methods so that many people bought them. This caught Luther's attention, and was a factor that led to the 95 Theses.

95 Theses

Luther's list of accusations against the Roman Catholic Church, which included the sale of indulgences

Ulrich Zwingli

(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.


a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine

John Calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Calvinism (1509-1564)


Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.

Martin Bucer

protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices. He was excommunicated at one point. He acted as a mediator between Zwingli and Luther. He worked with Philip of Melanchthon on the Wittenberg Concord

Thomas Wolsey

Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.

Thomas More

He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)

Henry 8

(1509-1547) Ruler of England, created Church of England , had 8 wives, and first nation to accept protestantism as a country

Thomas Cranmer

Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.

Thomas Cromwell

(1485-1540) Became King Henry VII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary THomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant.

Edward 6

son of Henry the 8 which led to protestant shift


Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.

Ignatius of Loyola

Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus

Council of Trent

an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation


A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.

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