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Depolarization of the membrane

What tends to open the sodium gates across a neuron's membrane?


What is a bump or protuberance on the surface of the brain called?

Voltage-gated channels

Action potentials generally are not propagated along dendrites because they lack:

Loss of sensation, but preserved motor control

Suppose a virus damaged only the dorsal roots of the spinal cord, but not the ventral roots. What would happen to the sensory and motor abilities of the affected area?

An action potential and no neurotransmitter release

If we take a frog heart that remains connected to the vagus nerve and place it in a water bath depleted of calcium, stimulation to the vagus nerve will result in:

A thing, unmyelinated axon

On which type of axon would an action potential travel the slowest?

Each parent is either homozygous for the recessive gene or heterozygous

In one family, all three children are homozygous for a recessive gene. What can be concluded about the parents?


The specialized presynaptic membrane receptors that remove molecules of transmitter from the synapse are called:

motor neurons

What receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses to muscle or gland cells?

father aa, mother AA

Suppose "A" is a dominant gene for the ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and "a" is a recessive gene for the inability to do so. Which of the following couples can be certain that all their children will be able to curl their tongue lengthwise?

the role of electricity in animal systems and the structure of the action potential

Via their work with the squid giant axon, Huxley and Hodgkin were the first to identify:

prefrontal cortex

Knowing that is is appropriate to tackle people on the football field, but not in the classroom is dependent on functioning of the:


Amoeboid-like glial cells that can move about and engulf foreign particles and debris are called:

out of the cell; into the cell

The sodium-potassium pump pumps sodium ions--- and potassium ions---:

chloride ions entering the cell

Which of the following would most likely result in an IPSP?


An impairment of eating, drinking, temperature regulation, or sexual behavior suggest possible damage to which brain structure?

it is still possible for the environment to influence the trait

If a trait has high heritability:


Which division of the nervous system consists of neurons that control the heart, intestines, and other organs?

ionotropic; inhibitory

The neurotransmitter GABA exerts --- effects, and its effects are almost always ---

dendrite, cell body, axon

Which of the following is the correct order of transmission of information within a neuron?

touch and body sensation

The postcentral gyrus in the parietal love is the primary area for:

Given no mistreatment, there are no differences between short 5-HT alleled individuals and long 5-HT alleled individuals

The results of Caspi's examination of the ink between depression and childhood mistreatment support which of the following statements?

Anadamide breaks down in the synapse fairly quickly

Why is there no perceptual "high" associated with the activation of cannaboid receptors when anadamide is the transmitter bound to the receptor site?


Which type of glia remove waste material in the nervous system?


Recessive genes manifest their effects only when the individual is --- for them

cool the blood

Aristotle thought that the brain's major function was to


Which love seems to be especially involved in the comprehension of spoken language in humans?

resting potential

What is the difference in voltage called that typically exists between the inside and the outside of a neuron?

decrease further neurotransmitter release

Activation of autoreceptors tends to:

individuals spread their genes by helping their relatives

Kin selection as an explanation for altruistic behavior would argue that:

stimulating the release of neurotransmitters

Which effect would be considered agonistic?


The cerebellum contributes to the control of what function?

The Y chromosome contains few genes

In humans, which chromosome(s) contain(s) few genes?

spatial summation

In a football game, having two players tackle an opponent at the same time will be more effective than if a single player tries to tackle the opponent alone. THe cumulative effect of simultaneous tackling is similar to what principle of synaptic communication?

increases; decreases

Saltatory conduction --- the velocity of action potentials, and --- the amount of energy used by the neuron


Seeing a snake come out of the drain in the bathtub might increase your heart rate, dilate your pupils, cause you to sweat, and raise the hair on your neck. THese responses are due to the activity of the --- nervous system


Most habit-forming drugs activate which type of synapse?

a neuron produces an action potential of maximal strength, or none at all

The all-or-none law states that:

The sodium gates in the membrane close

After the peak of an actin potential, what prevents sodium ions from continuing to enter the cell?

antagonistically, calcium

Botulinum toxis exerts its effects --- by blocking --- channels on the presynaptic cell

-70 millivolts

What is the approximate resting potential of the inside of a neuron's membrane, relative to the outside?

vagus nerve release acetylcholine which decreases heart rate

Otto Loewi's experiments were the first to demonstrate the action of neurotransmitter. He showed that:

pineal gland

Descartes suggested that the mind and brain interact in the:

slower and longer-lasting

Compared to ionotropic effects, metabotropic effects are:

the X chromosome

In general, when biologists speak of sex-linked genes they are referring to genes on the:

calcium into the cell

When an action potential reaches the end of a neuron, the depolarization causes what ionic movement in the presynaptic cell?

some mammalian axons

Myelin is found along the length of:

only certain molecules are allowed to cross the membrane freely

Which of the following describes selective permeability?

mind and body are different in substance

Dualism is the belief that:

blocking the synthesis of neurotransmitters

Which effect would be considered to be antagonistic?

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