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85 terms

Weather Fronts

Some terms can be used more than once. This includes ONLY the vocabulary and the notes. Make sure to study the reviews and the diagrams.
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air pressure
the weight of air pressing down on an area
relative humidity
a comparision of the actual amount of moisture in the air to the greatest possible amount that could be in the air at the same temperature and pressure
front
what is the border between two air masses that collide called
wind
the movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
continental polar air
a cold, dry air mass that forms over Alaska and northern Canada
continental tropical air
a very hot, dry air mass that forms over the deserts of Mexico and the southwestern U.S. and can bring drought conditions to the Great Plains
pacific maritime polar air
cool, moist air that brings moisture from the northern Pacific Ocean
pacific maritime tropical air
warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean west of Mexico that sometimes brings summer showers to the dry southwestern U.S.
atlantic maritime polar air
cool, moist air from the North Atlantic that can bring clouds or cooler weather
atlantic maritime tropical air
warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Carribean Sea that brings summer heat and humidity
arctic air
very cold, very dry air from the Arctic Circle that sometimes reaches the U.S.
polar easterlies north
these winds blow from the east, bringing polar air masses south
polar easterlies south
by moving cold polar air toward the equator, the polar easterlies help keep the global temperature in balance
prevailing westerlies north
blowing from west to east, these winds cause most of the weather in the U.S.
prevailing westerlies south
these winds cause the weather patterns in southern Africa and South America
northeast trade winds
these are the winds that took sailors in earlier centuries from Europe to the New World
southeast trade winds
these winds, blowing from southeast to northwest, also helped ships sail across the Atlantic Ocean
hundreds
how many kilometers of air does gravity pull down on
air pressure
when gravity pulls down on hundreds of kilometers of air, what happens
14.7
this number is the normal amount of air pressure at sea level
the number is in pounds per square inch
weather
a change in the air pressure is a sign that what will change
replace
as an air mass moves into an area, does it replace or mix with the air mass that was there before it
thousands
air masses can be several kilometers high, but how many kilometers wide can they be
pacific maritime polar air
pacific maritime tropical air
continental tropical air
continental polar air
atlantic maritime tropical air
atlantic maritime polar air
arctic air
name the 7 major air masses
relative humidity
name one characteristic of an air mass
humid
maritime air masses humid or dry
dry
are continetental air masses humid or dry
uneven heating of the Earth
what are winds on a large scale caused by
polar easterlies north
prevailing westerlies north
northeast trade winds
southeast trade winds
prevailing westerlies south
polar easterlies south
name the 6 major wind belts
collide
as an air mass moves, does it collide or mix with other air masses
equator and poles
collisions of air masses usually occur halfway between these two places
pushing
air masses move at different speeds, so will the faster one be pushing the other one or will it dissapear
mix
what do air masses NEVER do
above
will the warmer air mass be pushed above or under the cooler air mass
fronts
what causes entirely new weather
meteorologists
what are scientists who study the weather called
warm fronts
cold fronts
stationary fronts
occluded fronts
name the 4 kinds of fronts
warm front
when a warm air mass moves into an area of cooler air, what is the boundary that forms between them called
cool
as the warm air mass moves up in a gentle slope over the cooler one, does it cool or burn
clouds
after the warm air mass moves above the cooler one and after it cools, what does it condense into
cumulonimbus
what are the highest clouds
move in front of the front
do the cirrus clouds:
move in front of the front
or
does the front move in front of the cirrus clouds
warm
cirrus clouds are a sign that what kind of front is coming
steady
cirrus clouds are followed by lower clouds that cause rain, sleet, snow and gray, clouds skies usually follow
is it a steady precipitation or is it a heavy precipitaion
days
how long can the rain from cirrus clouds last before the warm front arrives
warm
the leading edge of a cold air mass causes a cold front as it collides with what type of air mass
cold front
which weather change is more extreme:
cold front
or
warm front
closer
do the weather changes for a cold front take place closer to the front or farther away from the front itself
cold
which move faster
cold or warm air masses
wedges
when a COLD air mass collides with a warm air mass, does it wedge itself itself under the warm air mass or does it rise above the warm air mass
cumulonimbus
the warm air mass is forced upward so fast that what kind of clouds form from quick cooling
60,000
cumulonimbus clouds can rise up to how many feet in the air.....up to the bottom of the stratosphere
summer
what season do cold fronts cause thunderstorms and tornadoes
cold front storms
what lasts longer:
cold front storms
or
warm front storms
move
sometimes the boundary between two air masses don't:
move
or
swell
stationary fronts
when the boundary between two air masses don't mix, what kind of front is it
clouds
often warm air mixes with the cool air
what forms on both sides of the stationary front
upward
cool
when warm air mixes with cool air and clouds form on both sides of the front, are the clouds pushed upward or down
after the are pushed upward/downward, do the clouds burn or cool
light
precipitiation occurs and is usually lasts a long time
is the precipitaion:
light
or
heavy
stationary
when a warm or cold front stalls, what kind of front does it turn into
both
when a stationary front starts moving again, it turns back into a:
warm front
cold front
or
both
occluded
what kind of front takes place when a cold front takes over a warm front
cold
the cold air mass comes in so fast it completely wedges itself under the warm front and meets what kind of front on the other side
lifted above the 2 cold air masses
as a result of the cold mass wedging itslef under the warm front during the occluded front, is the warm air mass:
lifted above the 2 cold air masses
or
stays put
cold air mass
in an occluded front, the warm air mass sits trapped over what kind of air mass
warm
when an occluded front is fully formed, the weather is much like what kind of front
there is a light, steady rain or snow
arctic air
what type of air mass does not come into the U.S. often
warm front
gentle slope
steady, gentle precipitiation for days
cold front
cold air mass wedges itself below warm air mass
extreme thunderstorms
over quickly
stationary front
neither air mass is moving
only mixing of air masses is along the front (boundary)
precipitation is similar to a warm front
light rain that lasts for days
when air masses move, name of front changes to warm/cold front
occluded front
in what type of front is:
the warm air mass pushed above 2 cold air masses
the warm air mass sits trapped above 2 cold air masses
precipitation is similar to cold front
extreme thunderstorms, but they are over quickly
H
high pressure (means good weather)
L
low pressure (means bad weather)
cumulonimbus
tall clouds that bring thunderstorms
cumulus
these clouds look piled up and fluffy
cumulous
cirrus
these clouds usually mean good weather
cumulus
these clouds can produce light rain
stratus
these clouds mean "layer"
stratus
these clouds form layers
stratus
what type of low clouds make up fog
cirrus
these clouds are high and look thin and wispy
cirrus
the name of this cloud means "curl of hair"
cirrus
these clouds usually mean a change in the weather is coming
stratus
cumulus
cirrus
cumulonimbus
name the four types of clouds starting with the closest to the Earth and up
wind
what moves air masses from one place to another