93 terms

Ms. Scafa 7th Grade Social Studies Final Review

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Culture
way of life
Grand Council
representative government of the Iroquois
SCOOM
The Seneca, Oneida, Cayuga, Mohawk and Onondaga tribes are part of the Iroquois.
Aztecs, Incas, Mayans
The first advanced civilizations
Migration Theory (Land Bridge Theory)
explains the way in which man came to live in North and South America. (First man is from Africa, first American is from Asia)
Columbian Exchange
encounter between the peoples of the Eastern and Western hemispheres; food, medicine, government, technology, disease, animals
New World
The Americas
Mercantilism
belief that colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country
Navigation Acts
acts passed by the British Parliament that imposed restrictions on colonial trade; purpose was the ensure only England benefited from colonial trade. Only colonial or British ships could carry goods to and from the colonies. Specific products, such as tobacco and cotton; could only be sold to England
Plymouth, Maryland Pennsylvania
Settled as a safe haven for religion (Puritans,Catholics, Quakers)
Albany Plan of Union
Ben Franklin's idea; the colonies must work together to defeat the French in the French and Indian War; would create one central government for the 13 colonies with a Grand Council made up of representatives from each colony; not approved
French and Indian War
war between the British and the French in the 1760s. Will result in debt for England and imposed taxes on the colonies to pay that debt
Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776: Stated the rights of the colonists (Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) Stated British wrongs Declared the colonies to be independent
Stamp Act
placed a tax on legal documents wills, diplomas, newspapers, etc.
Boston Tea Party
Port of Boston closed, Town meetings banned
Loyalists
People living in America who are loyal to the King
Patriots
People living in America who are against Britain and want independence
Battle of Saratoga
turning point in the war; ended the British threat to New England and convinced the French to become an ally of the Americans
Treaty of Paris of 1783
ended the American revolution; Britain agreed to recognize the U.S. as a free nation, Atlantic to the Mississippi River; Florida returned to Spain; Americans agreed to pay loyalists for property they lost in war-most state legislatures ignored this
Shays's Rebellion
economic depression after Revolution; Daniel Shays led a group of farmers hurt by the depression-attacked courthouses, raided a warehouse full of rifles; sign that the Articles of Confederation did not work
Articles of Confederation
first American Constitution; replaced by the Constitution. Problems included no president, no court system, states not united; an overall weak system of government
Federalist
supported the ratification of the Constitution; favored a strong national government
Antifederalist
opposed ratification of the Constitution; Wanted the states to have more power; wanted a bill of rights
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to the Constitution; added on in 1791; list of natural rights that the government cannot take away.
Constitution
a written form of government/laws; the name of the constitution for the United States
Federalism
division of power between the states and the federal government
House of Representatives
Part of the Legislative Branch (Congress) and are selected based on population
Separation of Powers
power of the federal government is separated between the judicial, executive and legislative branches
Checks and Balances
power is shared between the three branches to prevent one branch from becoming too powerful.
Great Compromise
agreement between the large states and small states over representation in Congress; created the two house Congress with the Senate and House of Representatives
Executive Branch
president, vice president and the cabinet; enforce laws, appoint Supreme Court Justices; can sign or veto a bill
Legislative Branch
Congress; the Senate and House of Representatives; declares war, coins and mints money; raises taxes; raises and army; approves Presidential appointments
Judicial Branch
the federal courts, including the Supreme Court; declare laws unconstitutional
First Amendment
Freedom of speech
Electoral College
body that officially elects the President of the United States
George Washington
first president of the US; only president to win unanimously; set precedents and gave advice to the US in his farewell address
Precedents
act or decision that sets an example for others to follow; example: George Washington only served two terms
Judicial Review
power of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional
Marbury v. Madison
landmark Supreme Court decision that gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial review
12th Amendment
response to the election of 1800 when Jefferson and Burr each received 73 electoral votes, creating a tie; requires electors to vote separately for President and Vice-President, rather than for two people
Louisiana Purchase
large piece of land that doubles the size of the United States; purchased from Napoleon and the French; under the Constitution, Presidents do not have the power to purchase land, but they do have the power to negotiate a treaty.
Impressment
legalized form of kidnapping that forced people in to military service
War of 1812
the Second American Revolution; war between Britain and the United States ; causes include impressment and American ships being seized by the British
Nullification
idea that if the federal government passed an unconstitutional law, the states had the right to declare it invalid
Alexander Hamilton
first Secretary of the Treasury; created the National Bank; created the Federalist Party
Bank of the United States
The national, federal bank; chartered by the government
Federalists
favored a strong federal government, favored the wealthy and educated, supported by bankers, merchants and manufacturers.
Thomas Jefferson
wrote the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom, leader of the Democratic-Republicans
Democratic-Republicans
supported farmers and the average Americans, believed in state's rights, supported in the rural South and the West
Election of 1800
ended in a tie between Jefferson and Burr when each received 73 electoral votes; tie broken in Congress
Proclamation of Neutrality
April 1793; the US would not support either side when the French and British were at war.
Spoils System
Practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs (Began with Andrew Jackson)
Andrew Jackson
Democratic President (1829-1837); expanded the role of President; used the spoils system, from Tennessee and represented the average American; destroyed the National Bank; Whig Party was created to oppose him
Temperance Movement
Reformers worked to end the sale of alcohol
Seneca Falls Convention
Beginning of the womens rights movement to achieve equality; issued the Declaration of Sentiments and began the struggle for women suffrage
Gradualism
belief that slavery has to end gradually, first stop slave traders from bringing slaves into the country, phase out slavery starting in the North and ending in the South and slave holders would be compensated for their loss.
Abolition
to end slavery and immediately free African Americans
Education
Educated citizens can take part in elections and continue democracy
Reservations
Predetermined land that Native Americans were moved to Indian Removal Act- passed in 1830 that forced many Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River
Cotton Gin
invented by Eli Whitney; cleaned cotton faster, resulting in the increased demand for slaves
Industrial Revolution
began in Europe; manufacturing shifted from home to factory and from hand to machine
Erie Canal
1817; canal that connects the Hudson River to Lake Erie
National Road
1818; first major east-west highway; connected Cumberland MD to Wheeling,VA
Monroe Doctrine
1823; President Monroe's foreign policy statement warning European nations not to colonize the American continents.
Missouri Compromise
created by Henry Clay; admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state; future states would abide by the 36 30 line-north of the line would be free and south of the line would be slave
Adams
Onis Treaty, treaty with the Spanish that resulted in the purchase of Florida
Tariffs
a tax on a imported good (a product from a foreign country). It supports American manufacturers; opposed by New England shippers and Southern farmers. RAISE REVENUE
Manifest Destiny
belief that the US had the right to all of the land between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans
Texas War for Independence
Texas, a Mexican territory with many American settlers, fought against Mexico for its freedom and won, resulting in the formation of the Republic of Texas
Annexation
to add on, as in the annexation of Texas to the United States James K. Polk- Democratic President; supported Manifest Destiny-campaign slogan of "54 40 or Fight"; annexed Oregon and Texas
Mexican War
Mexico thought the US stole Texas and a border dispute caused the US to send troops to the disputed area which led to war
California Gold Rush
1849- thousands of "49ers"flocked to California to find gold and get rich
Overland Trails
trails to the West; include the Mormon Trail, Santa Fe Trail and Oregon Trail
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Stephen Douglas proposed that the Nebraska Territory be divided in to two territories-Nebraska and Kansas; each territory would determine the issue of slavery through popular sovereignty
John Brown
abolitionist who led an attack on Harper's Ferry to start a slave revolt
Secession
To withdraw. States left the Union or seceded
Fugitive Slave Law
(1850) all people must help capture runaway slaves and return them to their masters; North was unhappy with this law
Underground Railroad
help slaves runaway to the North and set up places for them to hide
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln becomes President and the South seceded from the Union
Popular Sovereignty
Voters decide whether or not to allow slavery
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Tried to sway public opinion on slavery
Missouri Compromise
New territories in the North would be free and new territories in the South would be slave
Dred Scott decision
Dred Scott, a slave, tried to sue for his freedom. The court did not declare his freedom
Frederick Douglass
An abolitionist and an escaped slave
Compromise of 1850
Decided popular sovereignty for new states entering the Union
Bleeding Kansas
Riot of pro-slavery and anti-slavery people in Kansas on whether or not Kansas would be a free or slave state
Ulysses S. Grant
Union general; planed to blockade the South, capture the Mississippi River and Richmond, Virginia
Emancipation Proclamation
Declared freedom for all slaves in the rebellious states
Abraham Lincoln
President of the Union; main goal to preserve the Union
Anaconda Plan
Blockade all Southern ports so that the South will run out of resources and be forced to surrender
Union goals
Suffocate the South, Preserve the union, end slavery
Total War
Unrestricted war; new technology; rules of war are disregarded
Results of the Civil War
Northern economy grew due to war industry and the South was destroyed