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Real Science Review Guide
Terms in this set (100)
Assigning value to an object or topic without full knowledge about the object or topic.
He believed in the process of natural selection. His studies of specimens around the globe led him to formulate his theory of evolution and his views on the process of natural selection. He wrote "On the Origin of Species".
Alfred Russel Wallace
He was one of the leading evolutionary thinkers of the 19th century and made many other contributions to the development of evolutionary theory besides being co-discoverer of natural selection.
He believed that all life was organized in a vertical chain, with gradation between the lowest forms and the highest forms of life, thus demonstrating a path to progressive developments in nature.
Within a population, individuals have different traits; some of this variation is inherited; occasionally new traits appear in a population
More offspring are produced than can survive to maturity b/c all organisms are limited by conditions of the environment
Struggle to survive
Individuals must compete to survive, and some variations improve an individual's chance of to survive & reproduce, while some reduce the chance to survive & reproduce; a trait that makes an individual successful in and environment is an adaptation
Organisms with the best adaptations are most likely to survive & reproduce; then the adaptation becomes more frequent in the population; populations may begin to differ as they adapt to different environments (core idea of Darwin's theory)
Change in a gene pool of a population from generation to generation
Population can shrink. If the population shrinks, chance can take over.
Mating can cause frequency to change. If individuals chose their mate based on location or appearance, then the frequency can change.
Mutation: If a new gene is added through mutation, then the frequency can change.
Movement: Gene flow/ immigration or emigration can cause the gene pool frequency to change.
Adaptation: Nature favors animals that adapt well to the environment.
Ask a Question
Do Background Research
Construct a Hypothesis
Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
Communicate Your Results
Section of a Chromosome that codes for a trait.
Type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases and the population mean stabilizes on a particular trait value.
A mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.
Describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values
a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection)
Law of Segregation
When sperm and egg unite at fertilization, each contributes its allele, restoring the paired condition in the offspring.
Law of Independent Assortment
Traits are inherited separately from each other. This allows for many different combinations.
Alleles when present are expressed
Alleles when present are not expressed
Why were peas a good choice?
Peas don't have more than two alleles. They are also visible to the naked eye and it is easy to see their traits and are quick to grow.
Mendel's 1st Experiment
Crossed two true bred pea plants. One dominant (PP) and one recessive (pp). PP x pp
Mendel's 2nd Experiment
Self Pollinated two true bred pea plants. One dominant (PP) and one recessive (pp). Pp x Pp
Exceptions to Mendel's ideas of inheritance
Incomplete dominance. When 1 gene codes for many traits and when many genes code for 1 trait.
The part (DNA sequence) of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic (phenotype) of that cell/organism/individual.
The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences. The expression of a specific trait, such as stature or blood type, based on genetic and environmental influences.
It is a variant form of a gene. Some genes have a variety of different forms, which are located at the same position, or genetic locus, on a chromosome.
When an individual has two of the same allele, whether dominant or recessive.
Having one each of two different alleles.
Reproductive Anatomy of a Flower
Sometimes also called a purebred, is an organism that always passes down certain phenotypic traits (i.e. physically expressed traits) to its offspring.
Offspring resulting from the breeding of two genetically distinct individuals, which usually will result in a high degree of heterozygosity, though hybrid and heterozygous are not, strictly speaking, synonymous.
When pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in Gymnosperms).
The transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ (an anther or a male cone) of one plant to the female reproductive organ (a stigma or a female cone) of another plant.
A tabular summary of possible combinations of maternal alleles with paternal alleles. These tables can be used to examine the genotypic outcome probabilities of the offspring of a single trait (allele), or when crossing multiple traits from the parents.
A statement of how two numbers compare. It is a comparison of the size of one number to the size of another number.
An event that is the measure of the chance that the event will occur as a result of an experiment.
Contains information of DNA and is made of 2 chromatids
Chromosomes that have the same size, same shape, and same gene(s)
A female that carries a trait, however, the trait is not expressed.
These cells reproduce by mitosis making daughter cells that are exact replicas. Humans have 46 in body cells.
These cells are a result of the process of meiosis, a type of cell division in which diploid cells divide to give rise to haploid germ cells. This cell will merge with another cell at fertilization. Humans have 23 in sex cells
Part of the chromosome, specifically, 1/2 of the x.
Where the two chromatids meet.
This pulls the chromosomes to the sides and is also where all of the spindle fibers meet.
Parts of a Cell
The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell
A thick solution that fills each cell and is enclosed by the cell membrane. It helps to fill the cell and keeps it in the proper shape.
A part of the cell found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and is the center and control of the cell.
Organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. They also absorb sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide gas to produce food for the plant.
They are found in both animal and plant cells but are much larger in plant cells. They might store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive. They can even store waste products so the rest of the cell is protected from contamination. In plant cells, they maintain the proper pressure within to provide structure and support.
This provides structural support, protection, and acts as a filter for the cell.
This part of the cell takes simple molecules and combines them to make more complex molecules.
This part of the cell digests excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
This part of the cell takes in nutrients, breaks it down, and then turns it into energy
This part of the cell is a place for protein and lipid synthesis
This part of the cell is a place for protein and lipid synthesis
This is a process that contains one parent cell and is used to make Somatic (Body Cells). The cell then divides into two. The process involves a diploid number of chromosomes and goes through PMAT.
Phases of Mitosis
In this part of mitosis, the chromosomes condense, but the nucleus is still present.
In this part of mitosis, the chromosomes line up in the middle, the nucleus dissolves, and the spindles form.
In this part of mitosis, the spindles attach to the centrioles, the chromatids are separated, and the chromosomes go towards the end of the cell.
In this part of mitosis, the nucleus forms, spindles disappear, and a pinch (cleavage furrow) is formed.
This is a process that contains two parent cells that is used to make sperm and egg (sex cells). The cells duplicate twice. The process involves a haploid number of chromosomes and goes through PMAT twice.
A group of three bases. Example: TAC or GCA or TTA
Made of strings of amino acids, is found throughout your body, and expressed as trait. Human have around 50,000 of these.
Enzymes: Start or speed up reactions
Help Cells Function: e.g. Hemoglobin helps bind Oxygen bind to the Red Blood Cell (RBC)
Make Structures you can see: e.g. horns, fingernails, hair, etc
Protect the Cell
Made of DNA and is a disorder (deletion or duplication). Proteins complete things (functions) in your body, if the proteins are wrong, then the function is wrong and there is a disorder
Stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and is made of genetic material. This is a "recipe" for making proteins.
The building blocks of DNA that consists of one sugar, one base, and one phosphate.
Adenine, cytosine, guanine or thymine. Cytosine and Guanine are paired and Adenine and Thymine are paired. They form the rungs of the DNA Ladder.
A single unit or building block, like a Nucleotide.
Many units, like DNA
Makes an exact copy of the DNA, happens during interphase, Four Enzymes
Process of writing down the code. DNA is unzipped at the necessary gene and mRNA complement is made.
Makes a protein. Happens in the ribosome, made of mRNA
Shape of DNA
DNA is shaped in a double helix.
Happens during interphase and creates new strands of DNA. 4 Enzymes work during the replication process.
Helicase "unzips" the DNA.
Polymerase brings complementary nucleotides.
Primase tells Polymerase where to begin. S
ince Polymerase can only work 5' to 3', gyrase must glue together the okazaki fragments.
Finally, one enzyme must proofread.
DNA Replication Process
Helicase unzips the DNA at the appropriate gene. Then, Primase leads DNA Polymerase to begin building complementary DNA strands on each side. Gyrase glues together the okazaki fragments
Why is DNA Replication called Semi-Conservative?
Replication is known as a semi-conservative process because one strand of the newly built double helix comes from its parent while the other is new. This is true for both daughter.
This process creates proteins which carry out functions in your body. Helicase unzips the DNA, just like in replication. The mRNA (messenger RNA) complement is made (only to one side of the DNA NOT both in like Replication). Uracil replaces Thymine as the partner to adenine in RNA. This process occurs in Nucleus.
The RNA complement will be made into a protein. The mRNA strand leaves the nucleus and heads to a ribosome (made of RNA). The ribosome reads the RNA strand three bases at a time, which is a codon. tRNA, made up of an anticodon, which contains the codon's complement bases, and an amino acid, connects with the codon. When tRNA connects with the mRNA, they crate strings of the amino acids on the ends of the tRNA. Strings of amino acids are protein/ polypeptide chain.
An accidental change in DNA because of an error in replication, transcription, translation, or an environmental factor such as chemicals or radiation exposure.
A base is deleted. This is more likely to have a bigger effect if the base is at the front of the DNA chain because it will mess up all the codons.
A base is added. This is more likely to have a bigger effect if it is at the front of the DNA chain because it will mess up all codons after it.
A base is changed. This is less likely to be serious
6 Characteristics of a Living Thing
Made of Cells
Grows and Develops
Reproduces - sexual & asexual
Responds to the Environment (adaptation)
Simple Carbs: made of one (or a few) sugars linked together e.g. glucose
Complex Carbs: Many sugars linked together
Lipids - Fats & Oils
Store energy and make up cell membrane.
Adenosine Triphosphate. All energy (lipids/carbs) needs to be contracted to ATP for the cell to use it
He lived in 1665 and used cork from dead plants to look
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
He lived around 1665
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