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142 terms

Psychology Review Ch. 7-9

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consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
biological rhythms
periodic physiological fluctuations
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
REM sleep
a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
sleep
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from consciousness
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
insomnia
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, this disorder occurs during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content)
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that this functioned as a safety valve
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivations (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviours will spontaneously occur
posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviours
dissociation
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviours to occur simultaneously with others
psychoactive drugs
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
tolerance
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
withdrawal
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drugs
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
psychological dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
addiction
compulsive drug craving and use
depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
barbiturates
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
opiates
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
stimulants
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, concaine and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
methamphetamines
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
ecstasy (MDMA)
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
hallucinogens
psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
LSD
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
THC
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
near-death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
dualism
the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
monism
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
learning
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behaviour due to experience
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning
behaviourism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behaviour without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
acquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
extinction
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behaviour is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behaviour
behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behaviour learned through classical conditioning
operant behaviour
behaviour that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviours followed by favourable consequences become more likely, and that behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely
operant chamber
a chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behaviour toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour
reinforcer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behaviour it follows
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviours by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. It is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviours by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. It is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
an event that decreases the behaviour that it follows
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behaviour for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behaviour due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
observational learning
learning by observing others
modeling
the process of observing and imitating a specific behaviour
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. It may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
prosocial behaviour
positive, constructive, helpful behaviour. The opposite of antisocial behaviour
memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
encoding
the processing of information into the memory system -- for example, by extracting meaning
storage
the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
visual encoding
the encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
amnesia
the loss of memory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection (also called procedural memory)
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (also called declarative memory)
hippocampus
a neural centre that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-black test
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
deja vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
prototype
a mental image or best example of a category
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier -- but also more error-prone -- use of heuristics
heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent information
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct -- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
language
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
phoneme
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
semantics
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
syntax
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech developing in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
one-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram -- "go car" -- using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words
linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think