59 terms

English Final

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Literary Canon
suggests a reading list which belongs to a country or a certain period in time.
Literary Epic (all items associated with)
long narrative poem, often written about a hero or heroines
Epic Hero
a brave and noble character in an epic poem, admired for great achievements or affected by grand events: Beowulf, an epic hero with extraordinary strength.
Archetype
a very typical example of a certain person or thing.
Archetype Hero
appears in all religions, mythologies, and epics of the world. Characteristics are:
Traumatic Event Leads to Quest
Supernatural Help
Proves Himself on Quest
Learns a lesson on his journey
Archetype Setting
a time, place, or landscape that has similar significance for many different peoples. Such common settings arise across cultures because they apparently connect to the most powerful or universal human experiences.
Ex: · A paradise, or ideal place where people live without strife or fear
· A universe made up of opposites
· A landscape that emerges from dark or watery emptiness or confusion
· A circle that symbolizes completion
· A giant tree that connects heaven and earth
· A great flood and a ship that survives it
· An underworld that people go to after they die
Characterization
Act of creating and developing a character.
Direct - writer states character's traits or characteristics
Indirect - implied
Motivation
Reason that explains or partially explains a character's thoughts, feelings, or speech
Theme
Central message, concern, or purpose in a literary work
Universal Theme
Message about life that is expressed regularly in many different cultures and time periods
Folk Tale
Story composed orally and then passed from person to person by word of mouth, and reflect he cultural beliefs and environments from which they come
Narrative Structure
The content of the story (plot) and the form used to tell the story
Point of View
Perspective from which a story is told
First - "i"
Third Omniscient - narrator knows and tells about what each character feels and thinks
Third Limited - inner thoughts and feelings of only one character
Didactic Literature
Work that teaches a lesson in moral instruction
Summarize
Give a brief statement of the main points of a piece
Paraphrase
To put information into your own words
Irony
Contradiction between what happens and what is expected
Aphorism
Short sayings expressing a general truth or principle
Compare unrelated ideas or objects in the form of a striking simile or metaphor
Personification
Type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics
Alliteration
Repetition of initial constant sounds
Metaphor
Figure of speech in which something is described as though it were something else (points out similarities between two unlike things)
Simile
Figure of speech that uses "like" and "as" to make a direct comparison between two unlike things
Cliche
expression that has been overused to the extent that it loses its original meaning or novelty.
Parable
an illustrative story that points to a moral or lesson, A type of allegory, usually has people as characters
Vedic Hymn
religious texts composed in India between about 1500 and 1000 BCE. It includes elements such as liturgical material as well as mythological accounts, poems, prayers, and formulas considered to be sacred by the Vedic religion.
Indian Epic
Epic of Indian culture for example sibi
Indian Fables
Short
Characters: animals (usually)
Clear moral/lesson
Didactic- used to teach children
Trickster
Uses wit to overcome the greater strength of other-- a powerful creature outsmarted by someone clever
Demonstrates the superiority of intelligence over strength and of humor over a narrow literal-minded focus
Shih Poems
dominant Chinese poetic form from the second through the twelfth centuries A.D. The main formal characteristics of shih poetry are the following:
(1) There are an even number of lines;
(2) each line has the same number of words, in most cases five or seven; and
(3) rhymes occur at the end of the even-numbered lines.
Songs
Narrative poem that was originally set to poems
Ballads
song like poems that tell a story
Tone
Writer's attitude toward his or her audience and subject
Diction
Writer's word choice and the way the writer puts those words together
Refrain
Regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song
Incremental Variation
Sometimes one or two words within a refrain are varied in successive stanzas.
Taoism
There is a "way" or "path"
Go with the flow
Don't interfere because everything happens for a reason
Looks at nature for answers
Harmony with living things
Religious component
Yin and Yang is apart of the religion and represents peace and harmony
Nonviolence, peaceful, and immortality
Strive for a simple life in harmony with nature, freedom, simplicity,
People would be better off if they knew less
Confucianism
Social Philosophy
Not interested in spiritual matters
Wanted to change society for the better
Education was the key to a successful and good life
Hierarchical social order
Mandate of heaven
Wanted to cultivate the relationships between humans
Confucianism stressed discipline, morality, and knowledge
Tanka
Most prevalent verse in Japanese literature (haiku derived from this)
5 segments with 31 syllables in a 5,7,5,77 format
Most emphasis on imagery and and emotion than on structure
Haiku
Poem with form 5 7 5 (single vertical line in japanese / three parts)
Chains of interlocking verses
Evolved from collaborative poetry
Precise imagery
Contrasting imagery (general to specific)
Conveys insight into (human) nature
Evokes mood and emotion
Comparison between two images, actions, etc.
Seldom uses metaphors or similes
Imagery
Words or phrases that appeal to one or more of the five senses (paint images in your mind to help you experience a poem fully)
Parallelism
couplets that are similar in structure or meaning.
Caesura
Pause in a tanka (punctuation in English)
Tels a brief story or expresses a single thought or insight
Commonly about love or nature
Clear, powerful imagery
Hints existence of higher reality
Kigo
Seasonal word in Japanese poetry
Journal
Daily or periodic account of events and the writer's thoughts and feelings about those events
Anecdote
Brief story about an interesting, amusing, or strange event (to entertain or make a point)
Anticlimax
An event, conclusion, statement, etc., that is far less important, powerful, or striking than expected.
Apostrophe
Figure of speech in which the poet addresses an absent person, an abstract idea, or a thing.
Aside
Happens when a character's dialogue is spoken but not heard by the other actors on the stage. Asides are useful for giving the audience special information about the other characters onstage or the action of the plot.
Comedy
Literary genre and a type of dramatic work that is amusing and satirical in its tone, mostly having cheerful ending
Comic Relief
Comic episodes in a dramatic or literary work that offset more serious sections
Dialogue
Conversation between two or more people as a feature of a book, play, or movie
Dramatic Foil
Character who contrasts with another character (usually the protagonist) in order to highlight particular qualities of the other character.
Dramatic Irony
The expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
Foreshadowing
Warning or indication of (a future event)
Monologue
Speech presented by a single character, most often to express their mental thoughts aloud, though sometimes also to directly address another character or the audience.
Rhetorical Question
Question that you ask without expecting an answer. The question might be one that does not have an answer. It might also be one that has an obvious answer but you have asked the question to make a point, to persuade or for literary effect.
Soliloquy
An act of speaking one's thoughts aloud when by oneself or regardless of any hearers, especially by a character in a play
Tragicomedy
Play or novel containing elements of both comedy and tragedy.
Tragedy
A play dealing with tragic events and having an unhappy ending, especially one concerning the downfall of the main character.
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