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INTRO TO PSYCH: CHAPTER 3 BIOLOGY OF BEHAVIOUR
Terms in this set (34)
Three principles of behavioural genetics
1. The complex connection between genes and behaviour
2. Genes and Environment
3. Epigenetics: How the environment changes gene expression
the hereditary passing on of traits determined by a single gene (ex; huntington's disease)
when many genes interact to create a single characteristic
extent to which a difference in a characteristic are influenced by genetics
Identify the 5 research strategies that are used to determine the role of genetics in behaviour
1. Twin studies
2. Adoption Studies
3. Twin-Adoption studies
4. Gene by environment studies
5. Gene manipulation in non-human animals
Central Nervous System (CNS)
part of the nervous system thats comprised of the brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
part of the nervous system thats comprised of all the nerve cells in the body outside the central nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
all the nerves or the peripheral nervous system that serve involuntary systems of the body, such as the internal organs and glands
has two main branches: sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system
Somatic Nervous System
peripheral motor nerves involved in control of voluntary movement as well as sensory nerves involved in the reception of stimuli from the external environment
Sympathetic nervous system
the branch of the ANS that activates bodily systems in times of emergency. Walter Cannon labelled this the "fight-or-flight response," increases heart rate, dilating pupils, inhibits digestion.
Parasympathetic nervous system
the branch of the ANS that is of relaxation, returns the body to a less active, restful state. Referred to as "rest and digest."
symptoms aroused by the sympathetic nervous system are relaxed by the parasympathetic nervous system.
Three types of neurones
1. Sensory neurons
Receives incoming sensory information from the outside environment from the sense organs (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose). Anything you see, hear, touch, smell or taste activates sensory neurones, that info then goes to the CNS for processing
Takes commands form the brain and carries them to the muscles and glands of the body. Each time you move a muscle, intentionally or unintentionally, motorneurons are at work. They are also responsible for initiating hormone release from endocrine glands.
cells that process and transmit information in the nervous system. they have 3 major parts: cell body/soma, dendrites, axon.
the cell body of a neuron
finger-like projections from a neutrons soma that receives information and messages form other neutrons
a long projection that extends from a neutrons soma; it transmits electrical impulses towards target neurones.
a fatty tissue that wraps around and insulates some axons
Nodes of Ranvier
unwrapped gaps of axons, allows neuronal impulse to travel quicker down the axon
cell bodies / unmyelinated axons
a specialized junction between the axon and the adjacent neuron, where information is transmitted between one neuron to another.
little knobs at the end of each axon that contains little sacs of neurotransmitters
the gap between the neurones that when an impulse meets the terminal, it triggers the release of neurotransmitter molecules there
the neuron on the receiving side of the synapse, neurotransmitters bind the receptors on its membrane. the neuron AFTER the synaptic cleft.
the neuron on the sending side of the synapse, it relates neurotransmitter. The neuron BEFORE the synaptic cleft.
promotes movement of ions in a direction that equalized the charge across the membrane. in resting state there is an excess of negatively charged particles inside the axon.
Excitatory Postsynapic Potential: makes post synaptic neuron more likely to fire and action
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential: makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action
an electrical signal that travels along the length of the neuron, it stimulates neurotransmitter release. triggered by graded potential
small electrical signals generated at the synapse by neurotransmitters; and TRIGGER ACTION POTENTIAL
involves chemical breakdown of the neurotransmitter molecule by enzymes present in the synapse
returns excess neurotransmitter VIA special proteins to the neuron that released it.