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What type of government was established by our founders?


What was the american republican goverment intended to be the exact opposite of?


What was this american republican government built upon?


What was the balance that our founders struggled between?

social order

What was the time period called from 1781 to 1789?

Critical Period

Why was the time period between 1781 and 1789 called the Critical Period?

experiment could have failed

Who leads the country in a Republic?

Person elected

Other than moving away from a monarchy, what other aristocratic behaviors did America wish to remove?

titles of nobility

What refers to the eldest son inheriting everything?


What law didn't allow property to be divided, sold or given away to someone other than the eldest son?


Why did Americans dislike primogeniture and entail?

Too aristocratic

What was one heredity organization that some veterans did join?

Cincinnati Society

What were some members of the Cincinnati Society?

Henry Knox, George Washington, Alexander Hamilton

What was the criticism of the Cincinnati Society?

countered republicanism

What republican practice regarding voting did many states move toward?

made it easier to vote

Why did many states move their capitals west?

so they could include everyone

What republican practice regarding religion became common?

ending state religions

What was the new name of the Church of England in America?

Episcopalian Church

Who wrote "Virginia Statue of Religous Freedom" in 1786?

Thomas Jefferson

What did Jefferson advocate in the writing of "Virginia Statue of Religous Freedom" ?

Religious freedom

What hypocrisies existed under American Republicanism?

no equality for women and slaves

What quaker leader became outspoken against slavery before the revolution?

John Woolman

Who was the black astronomer and mathematician?

Benjamin Banneker

Who was the first black poet?

Phillis Wheatly

What was the first anti-slavery society in America?

Society for the relief of free negroes

What was the second anti-slavery society in America?

The manumission society

What does manumission mean?


In the north, did free blacks have equality with whites?


Who formed the significant church for black Americans?

Richard Allen

What was Richard Allen's second denomination created in 1814?

The African Methodist Episcopal Church

What republican practice did some men practice regarding there family?

treated them better

What concept stated that women should instill values into their families?

Republican Motherhood

What did Republican Motherhood lead to?

female academies

What legal phrase refers to the wives' rights being merged with their husbands?

Feme Covert

What state was the first to allow for femal suffrage?

New Jersey

Why did New Jersey repeal women's suffrage in 1807?

close election

What phrase refers to women and slaves waiting for equal rights?

postponing full liberty

In 1776, what did states creat that replaced colonial charters?

State constitutions

What did the eight state constitutions include (to protect against tyrants)?

bill of rights

What Virginian became the most vocal advocate of a bill of rights?

George Mason

Who wrote Massachusetts' constitution?

John Adams

What phrase in their preamble will later be found in the US Constitution?

We the people

How did politicians begin to change during this time?

less educated and wealthy

What is ther association of sovereign states?

a confederation

Who was the chief architect of the articles of confederation?

John Dickinson

Where did most of the power lie in the confederation?

With the states

People feared a strong central government/ leader under the articales, how many houses were there?

One, unicameral

How many votes did each state receive?


how many delegates could each state send to congress?

from 2 to 7

Who was the president?

there wasn't one

Was there a supreme court?


Who handled legal cases?

the states

could congress tax?

no, they could only ask states to contribute money

what was this state contribution called?


How was the articles of confederation to be amended?

all 13 states had to agree

what were the 7 states called that claimed western land all the way to the ocean?


what were landlocked states called?


what did the landless states do to protest their lack of land?

they refused to adopt articles of confederation

What was the final state to ratify the Articles?


what act created a system of new townships in the northwest?

The Land Ordinance of 1785

What did congress do with this northwestern land?

sold it to the public

Why didn't many people buy the land?

they couldn't pay in hard currency

What act did congress pass in 1787 in order to create a process for new states in the northwest?

The northwest territory

Whow many new states were created in the northwest territory?

between 3 and 5

once an area reached 5000 citizens, what could they do?

become a territory

once an area reched 60,000 citizens what could they do?

apply for statehood

what did this act outlaw in the northwest territory?


what mountain divide allowed settlers to migrate to the southwest territory?

The Cuberland Gap

Who was one of the first settlers to reach Kentucky?

Daniel Boone

What were the two proposed names that were rejected for land west of the appalachians?

Transylvania and Franklin

What shape was the US economy during the 1780s?

poor shape

What is the term for hard currency (gold/silver)?


What could congress do to alleviate this situation?

nothing, they couldn' t tax

What was the group that advocated a stronger central government?


What was the Impost of 1781?

Congress could callect 5% import tax

Did the Impost of 1781 pass?

no, only 12 states accepted it

During the Critical Period, the US had foreign affairs problems with what four countries/ people?

Britain, Spain, France, and the Barbary Pirates

Why was Britain upset with the US?

The US wasn't forciny Americans to repay debts

What could congress do to make the states force the citizens to pay back debt?

nothing, they were powerless

What was Britains reaction to Americans not repaying debt?

Britain refused to evacuate their troops

What could congress do to stop Redcoats?


Why did the US and Spain have disagreements?

Spain closed Mississippi River to Americans

Why was closing the Mississippi such a big deal?

It was the only link that Western farmers had to the world market

What was the treaty that would allowSpain to control the Mississippi River for 25 years in return for opening up new Spanish markets for american merchants?

The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty

Who did The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty hurt?

Western Farmers

Who did The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty help?

eastern merchants

What did congress do in return of the proposal of The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty?

The refused to ratify The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty

What problems did the US have with France?

France demanded repayment of war loans and restricted US trade with west indies

What were the pirates called in North Africa?

The Barbary Pirates

What did the Barbary Pirates do to the US sailors?

they kidnapped them for ransom

What do the following describe?
-congress met irregularly
-some stateds didn't send delegates to congress
-there was no permanent capital

weaknesses of the confederation

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