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183 terms

chapter 24 - Neurosurgery

Study guide
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Acoustic Neuroma
includes loss of hearing
ex. headache,vertigo and facial pain
it includes the auditory acoustic(eight cranial nerve)
Spina Bifida
(dysraphism)
is a failure of the body structures around the neutral tube to closed properly during embryonic development.
Spondylosis
stiffness of a vertebrae joint.
Craniosynostosis
premature closure of the sutures of the infant skull
Papaverine
direct smooth muscle relaxant that is injected into corpus cavernosum, and is usually used together with phentolamine User-contributed
CUSA
cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator
fragment and emulsifies a tumor ultrasonically while irrigating and aspirating the resulting debris it high.
ICP
intracranial pressure
Trigeminal Opthalmic
sensory nerve transmit stimuli from the mucosa of the nose pharnyx upper lip, teeth, palate
Trigeminal Maxillary
stimuli from uppr eyelid cornea, lacrimal nasal cavity, side of the nose, and the forehead.
Trigeminal Mandibular
mixed stimuli from the anterior tongue and lower teeth and mores tthte muscles.
Circle of willis
ring of arteries that gives rise to the various branches supplying blood to the brain.
Epidural Hematoma
collection of blood above the dura mater
Subdural Hematoma
collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the meninges)
Sphenoid Bone
Bone that is on the interior portion of the skull and holds the base of the brain
Thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Gray matter
greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers
Ideal temperature for irrigation fluid that willl be used intracranially?
they use normal body temperature
How many cranial nerves
12
How many spinal nerves
31
What is a hemostatic clamp use in craniotomy procedure?
Dandy
Benign tumor are totally insized by what kind of procedure?
craniotomy
what kind of suture are use in craniotomy procedure ?
4-0 silk, and 4-0 nylon
the midbrain is located between
Dencephalon and pons
function of the hypothalamus?
regulates hemostatis
3 primary function of the nervous system
sensory, intergrative, and motor
name the three trigeminal nerves
trigeminal opthalmic, trigeminal maxillary, and trigeminal mandibular
where is the CSF formed? how is it form?
specialized capillaries called choroid plexuses produced approx. 800ml of CSF a day
- choroid plexuses produce CSF by filtration of plasma
three meningeal layers
Dura mater, Arachnoid mater,Pia mater
causes of Hydrocephalus
obstruction,overproduction, and malabsorption
what absorbs the CSF fluid?
Arachnoid villi
what kind of procedure relieves congenital abnormalities?
craniosynotosis, neurogocele, spinabifida
what kind of procedure relieve injured or diseased peripheral nerves?
carpol tunnel syndrome
what relieves pain
herniated disc, vertebral fix
to relieve pressure on the brain and spinal cord
herniated disc, and vertibral fracture
remove pathological lesion
tumors, abscess, aneurysm
thydrocephalos, subdural hematoma
what does the CSF contain?
colorless fluid contains small amounts of protein, glucose, lactic acid, urea, and potassium as well as a relatively large amount of sodium chloride.
papaverine
Vasodilator relaxes smooth muscle in arterial wall stops vasospasm
two seperated mayo stand needed for Transsphenoidal Procedure
-access to the pituitary is gained through the mouth and nose which are considered nonsterile.
-therefore the nasal instrument are isolated on one mayo stand.
type of obstruction of the aqueducts between the ventricles that can lead to hydrocephalus.
scarring, tumor, inflammation, edema
name radiographic techniques to identify spinal disorder
ct-scan, MRI, x-ray
three classification (location) of spinal cord tumors
intramedullary, intradural, extradural
causes of growth hormones overproduction
caused by a tumor on the anterior part of the pituitary gland
most common type of brain tumors?
glioma- account for 40% of primary brain tumors
three types of teh subdural hematoma
acute, subacute, and chronic
mayfield pin-fixation device used
position and stabilizing the head and neck during surgical intervention.
two approaches that can be used for surgery of the pituitary
craniotomy, transphenoidal
what position is the patient placed for a craniotomy procedure?
sitting or prone
method by which the bone flap is secured to the cranium
wire, suture, plate, screw fixation
most common cause for epiglottis?
haemophilus influenza
the use of screw and plate geometry to apply force at the fracture site?(type of compression)
dynamics
what articulates with the head of the femur?
acetabulum
the name of the second vertibrae?
axis
which type of cell break down and assimulates bone?
osteoclast
the distal end of long bone is called
epiphysis
which bone is posterior to the mandible and anterior to the trachea
hyoid bone
manipulating bone fragments without ensizing the skin
CRIF (closed reduction internal fixation)
meaning of apnea?
cessation of breathing
another name for 7th cranial nerve
facial nerve
the usage of nitrousoxide in during recontructive ear surgery
not use in ear (because it expands the ear)
what is the hyoid bone attached to?
tongue and neck
what tonsil are removed while having tonsillectomy?
palatine tonsil and facial tonsil
what is hydrops?
abnormal commulation of clear water fluid in the tissue of osmotically active components
what is olfactory nerve?
sense of smell
term for nose bleeding?
epitaxis
what is the pharynx?
throat
whata is glottis?
a small opening between the true vocal cords
which structure articulates with the distal clavicle and provides attachment for muscle from arm and chest
acroniom process
what is the graft taken from the (cadaver)
allograft
what muscle is part of the rotater cuff?
infraspinatus, subcapularis, suprapinatus, and teres minos
primary purpose of meniscus surgery
save as much of torned meniscus as possible
which piece of equipment would not typically be used during a knee arthroscopy
insufflator
patient is scheduled from an anterior cruciate ligament repair. the surgeon plans to use the patient patellar tendon. this examples which type of graft
autograft
what is the primary reason for performing a total joint arthroplasty
degenerative joint disease
manipulating bone fracture fragment into alignment with out incision thte skin is called
closed reduction
what type of cast material is in expensive light weight and strong?
fiberglass
the lowest tracheal cartilage that form between right and left
carina
inituitve step for bone fracture
hemorrhage and inflammation
cholesteoma
benign growth of skin in an abnormal location (middle ear)
tympanoplasty
surgical correction or repair of defects or injuries in the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear
apex
another name for nose
the main source of blood supply to the nose
maxillary artery
what structure divides the nasall cavity
septum
septoplasty
surgical repair of the nasal septum
rhinoplasty
cosmetic surgery to improve the appearance of your nose
the primary reason for total repair of arthroplasty
restore mobility, relieve pain, deformity
exampple of irregular bone
genovarum, genu valgum, talipse valgus, talipse varus
which ligament originates from anterior internaculila (middle of tubia)
anterior cruciate ligament ACL
cochlea
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
congenital
existing at birth
plantar flexion
Bending of the foot at the ankle in a downward direction
the end of which bone atriculates with the manubrium
clavicle
major concern when operating on the parotid gland
facial nerve
the instrument use to pass a prostesis oro a garft in ear surgery
alligator ear forcep (alligator)
what part of the pharynx is more superior
nasopharynx
rhinitis
inflammation of the nose
sclerosis
any pathological hardening or thickening of tissue
deafness
partial or complete loss of hearing
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear
hip spica cast
surrounds both legs,trunk
what typpe of digestive enzyme are found in the saliva
amalyse
adenoid
relating to or resembling lymphatic glands or lymphoid tissue
hypertrophy
abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ
CN1
olfactory (smell)
CN2
optic (vision)
CN3
oculomotor (eye movement)
CN4
trochlear (eye movement, downward)
CN5
trigeminal (chewing)
CN6
abducens (looking out to the side)
CN7
FACIAL/ FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
CN8
vestibulocochlear (hearing and balance)
CN9
glossopharyngeal (swallowing)
CN10
vagus; internal organ functions
CN11
spinal accessory or accessory; upper traps and SCM
CN12
hypoglossal (tongue movements)
intramedullary
pertaining to within the marrow
intradural
perineal plain
extradural
outside of the dura mater (adj.)
which two of the muscle are use as autograft for easier ACL reconstruction
hanstring, and quadracile
procedure to perform a m pigment syndrome?
acromioplasty
which instrumenr is ised to remove excess bone from thet femoral tunnel (shaft)
rongeur
define CNS
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
define ANS
the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
AXIAL
head neck and trunk 80 bones
appendicular
upper and lower limbs
ligament
Connects bone to bone
tendon
strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
ankylosis
abnormal condition of stiffness
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
hallux valgus
an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)
acronium
lateral triangular projection of the spine of the scapula that form the point of shoulder
bone cement
Polymethyl methacrylate is used to secure and cement some orthopedic implants. It is highly toxic to OR staff and exposure can produce: eye irritation, skin irritation, depression of the central nervous system. Respiratory tract irritation. Preg. woman should not be present in OR during mix of the bone cement.
iliac crest
best bone graft (usually taken)
at the distal end the tibia expends to form a promysence
medical mallelous
talus
the bone in the ankle that articulates with the leg bones to form the ankle joint
communited
fractue in which the bone is broken or splintered into pieces
humerus
bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow
what suture use to attached tendon to bone
polyester(ethibond)
polypropylen(prolene)
scoliosis
lateral curvature of the spine
hemostatic agent
gelfoam, avitenne, thrombin, bone wax
epinephrine
vasocontrusion
UPPP
surgical resection of unnecessary palatal and oropharyngeal tissue to open the airway (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty)
cervical
7
thoracic
12
lumbar
5
sacral
1
coccyx
1
spinal column
26
during a myringotomy, pressure equalizing tube are
picked up and inserted with hartman froceps
which two of the following muscle are used for an autograftt ACL reconstruction
semitendinous, gracilis
correct sequent for insurgent for a bone screw
drill, depth measure, tap, insert screw
tetanus
(lock jaw) bacterial infection of tetanus that impacts the CNS
amnesia
loss of memory
conclussion
shaking of brain
cerebral contusion
bruising of brain tissue
cranial hematoma
collection of blood in the brain
syncope
fainting lack of oxygen in the brain.
lethargy
lower level of consciousness reduce level of activity
stupor
no respond to the surrounding/ no fellings
coma
a state of deep and often prolonged unconsciousness
delirum
confusion, disoriented shorter term, then dementia
dementia
loss of judgement/ thinking too much
stroke CVA
sudden weakness and numbness of face, arm, leg, on one side of body, difficulty talking or understanding speech, dimmed or blurred vision, no PERL, sudden headaches, dizziness, or confusion, sudden changes in mood, ringing in the ears, drooling, loss of bowel or bladder control, seizure (rare)
TIA
transient ischemic attack
PEG
TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK temporary interrupption artrial
PEC
pneumo enchephal graphy,
injection air to view
osteophyte
bony spur
typical results of brain hemorrhage
cranial pressure ex buildups excessive hypertention
scalp edges
leray-rainy scalp clips
perforator
creating a burhole
what area of the brain associates with speech and muscle movement
frontal lobe
cephalgia
headache
migraine
severe headache
encephalocele
herniation of brain tissue
hydrochephalus
excessive of the CSF in the barin
menigocele
protrussion of the meninges or herniation
menigitis
inflammation of meninges
alzheiners disease
progessive memory loss
cognitium
mental activity/ memory loss
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus
parkinson disease
condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem
mri
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
myelography
air introduce in the ventricle to view with xray
ventriculo graphy
air introduce in the ventrcle to view the xray