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Organic Compounds

the study of carbon-based molecules


is the simplest organic compound

Functional Groups

are the groups of atoms that usually participate in chemical reactions


four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)


a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain


small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

Dehydration reaction

a chemical reaction that removes molecules from water


means to break (lyse) with water (hydro)


is commonly known as "carbs," are sugars or sugar polymers.


simple sugars, that cannot be broken down by hydrolysis into smaller sugars. Common examples are glucose and fructose.


glucose and fructose are examples of molecules that have the same molecular form but different structures.


or double ringed sugars is contracted from two monosaccharides through a dehydration reaction. Lactose is one that is made from the monosaccharide glucose and galactose.


are complex carbohydrates that are long chains of sugar units - polymers of monosaccharides, One example is starch


consist of many glucose monomers strung together.


An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.


organic compounds that are hydrophobic that don't mix with water


organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids


Glycerol + 3 fatty acids


fatty acids that has fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens at the location of a double bonds


fatty acids that contain the maximum number if hydrogen atoms

Trans fat

type of unsaturated fat that is even less healthy than saturated fat


are classified as lipids because they are hydrophobic, which are different from fat in structure and function


is a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers

Amino acids

small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules

Peptide bond

A bond that links amino acids together in a protein


chain of linked amino acids

Primary structure

The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.


is the loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor

Nucleic acids

are macromolecules that provide the directions for building proteins


Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.


ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis


sequence of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide


nucleic acids are polymers made from monomers

sugar-phosphate backbone

a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate, with the bases (A,T,C, or G)hanging off the backbone like an appendage.

double helix

a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis

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