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Social Studies Final Study Guide :)
Terms in this set (87)
Key Terms To Know
look at them down below
time before humans invented writing
preserved remains of ancient human, animal, or plant
object made by a human being
study of humankind in all aspects, especially development and culture
scientist who studies human life in the past by examining the things that people left behind
Mesopotamian system of writing that uses triangular-shaped symbols to stand for ideas or things
person who moves place to place without a permanent home
movement of people from one place to another
change the growth of plants or behavior of animals in ways that are useful for humans
independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding territory
people who lives by hunting animals and gathering plants
worship of many gods or deities
spread of cultural traits from one culture to another
good or service sold within a country that is produced in another country
good or service produced within a country and sold outside the country's borders
a flat plain formed on the seabed where a river deposits materials over many years
first five books of the Hebrew Bible
belief in a single God
group of rocky rapids
king of ancient Eygpt
a body that has been preserved so it will not decompose
symbol that stands for an idea, word, or phrase
a writing surface similar to paper named after the papyrus reed that grew along the Nile River in ancient Egypt
structure with triangular sides
escape of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt
weekly day of rest
person believed to be chosen by God to bring truth to the people
Jewish house of worship
art and practice of government
government in which a small group of people rule
unjust use of power, or in ancient Greece a government run by a strong ruler
form of government in which citizens hold political power
heredity class of rulers, Greek for "rule by the best people"
form of government in which citizens have the right to vote and elect people
in Hinduism, the effect of a person's actions in this and previous lives
rebirth of a soul into a new body
collection of myths or stories that people tell about their gods or heroes
a state of blissful peace without desire or suffering
People To Know
A Babylonian king who set up his own laws, called Hammurabi's Code.
The mother-in-law of Ruth and went to return to Bethlehem when Ruth's husband died.
The king of Babylon who expanded his power all the way to Egypt. He exiled the Jews to Babylon after conquering Jerusalem. He built the Hanging Gardens of Jerusalem.
Rule was peaceful and was one of the few women to rule Egypt.
A pharaoh who expanded his rein through Egypt through war.
Part of the civilization following the Minoans. They emerged about 600 B.C. and made bronze weapons and pottery. They were also ruled by kings, until they were destroyed by the Dorians.
A man who ruled ancient Egypt and had a wife named Hatsheput, who later ruled.
The man who united Lower and Upper Egypt.
Her husband died, so she went to Bethlehem, where she got married once again
The man who had a son named Issac, who had a son named Jacob. Pretty much every person descended from Abraham.
He led the people out of Egypt because God told him to.
They were the people of Athens who valued individual expression and new ideas.
A Greek philosopher who's teacher was Plato. He set up his own school (Lyceum) and taught Alexander the Great
A student of Socrates and was the founder of the academy (university). He also wrote a book The Republic.
A Greek philosopher who made his own method, called the Socratic Method.
He was the son of Issac and grandson of Abraham.
Roman general, statesman, and dictator. He also made the Roman republic into a powerful country. He was killed by his friend Brutes on
People who lived in Sparta and had an ongoing war with the Athenians. They were evenly matched, but Sparta won.
They were descended from Abraham.
The people of Babylon, which was in the Fertile Crescent.
A highly advanced Greek civilization who mysteriously disappeared.
Captured the city of Jerusalem and made it the capital. He also wrote beautiful psalms in the Bible.
They were sailors who traded through the Mediterranean.
They were nomadic herders and inherited their castes.
Places to Know
a region with good conditions for growing crops that stretches from the Mediterranean coast east to Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) to the Persian gulf
Nile River Valley
Egyptians used this to plant crops; begins in East Africa and flows 3500 miles to the Mesopotamian; provides fertile soil
wide, flat plain in between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in present day Iraq
Indus River Valley
supplied water for crops to provide water for crops and good soil; mysteriously dissapeared
city-state near the Nile; traded along the river
the land promised to God's people by God; Moses led God's people to the Promised Land
world's first civilization; had epic poetry, existed for at least 3,000 years
people with many achievements; subcontinent of Southern Asia separated by the Himalayas and Hindu Kush; about 2000 miles long
Ideas/Things to Know
How early humans changed from nomads/hunter gatherers to staying in one place and developing early civilizations (farming, surplus, irrigation, domestication, etc.)
As they adapted they had better tools to grow crops for a longer period of time so they built communities that grew into cities with a government and specialized workers. They also began to trade with one another. A special worker is a worker that has a special skill in a special job. They built a surplus of food. Irrigation is to supply water to.
Religions: Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Brahmanism, polytheism vs. monotheism
Judaism- belief in one God and had ceremonies for that one God. Emerged in the city of Judah there are basic teachings. There are teachings three love for others, observance of the sabbath, observation of the law.
Christianity- Belief in one God and performed any ceremonies for that God. Belief in Christ as the Messiah, the monotheistic belief in one god, and the belief in Jesus christ saving us
Buddhism-a religion that developed out of the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha. Wanted people to find blissful peace. The goal is to reach Nirvana,
Hinduism- The existence of the supreme god Brahman, the goal in reaching Moksha, which can be done by leading a moral life, have a permanent soul that carries you through reincarnation, and also believed in the caste system
Brahmanism- Religion of Vedic India, based on priests and rituals particularly sacrifices to gods. Brahmans were the only ones who studied the Vedas. It is a supreme spiritual force for Hindus
Polytheism- belief in more than one god.
Monotheism- belief in one god.
Hammurabi's Code is a bunch of laws that made everything fair when Hammurabi ruled. For example, a man who took out an eye had his eye plucked out as well. Some examples are eye for an eye. It includes nearly 300 laws
Key teachings of Judiasm
The Hebrew Bible has three sections, called the Torah (tells stories about God's creation and focuses on Abraham) (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible), the prophets (a book about/by the Jewish Prophets) (reminds people to obey God's law), and the writings (contain Hebrew literature such as Psalms, Proverbs, and the Song of Songs) (had basic teachings and polytheistic justice)
Sanskrit literature: Bhagavad Gita
The Hindu scriptures such as the Upanishads and the Bhagavad-Gita teach important Hindu beliefs about life and reincarnation.
Advancements in Art, Architecture and Learning by the ancient Egyptians (calendar, surgery, papyrus, etc.)
The calendar helped tell time and what day it would be. Surgery saved more lives from serious injury or death. Papyrus was grown in Egypt and was used like paper. It would last longer since it was resistible to the heat.
The evolution of language and its written forms (pictographs, cuneiform, hieroglyphics, Meroitic script, etc.)
Cuneiform- used triangular shapes to represent ideas or things.
Pictographs- pictures used to stand for an idea or object.
Hieroglyphics- stands for a symbol, word, or idea used by Egyptians.
Meroitic Script- used in Kush and used hieroglyphics.
Trade and cultural diffusion
An exchange of goods and services, leading to new ideas in cultures to spread from place to place.
Major river systems and bodies of water surrounding ancient civilizations (Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Aegean Sea, Indus River, Mediterranean Sea, etc.)
Nile- one of the longest river.
Tigris and Euphrates- both flowed into the Nile river.
Aegean Sea- a long river that was used by peoples in the area.
Indus River- a long river system used by nearby people.
Mediterranean Sea- a sea often used for trading purposes and used for planting crops on. Made contact to other lands and happened to greeks and merchants forms the western boundary of the fertile crescent
All of these rivers/seas were either used for trading or planting crops.
Caste system/social structure of India
The top are the Brahmans, next is Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras, and Dalits. The Brahmans were priests. Kshatriyas were warriors and rulers. Vedas were book of sacred hyms were read by Brahmins at sacred scripture and at special rituals.
the changing of plants and animals to be used for work.
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