68 terms

Plants and Ecology

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Dermal Tissue
The protective outer covering of the plant body
Cuticle
The outer service of epidermis; a waxy coating that protects against water loss
Vascular Tissue
Transports materials throughout the plant
Xylem
A type of vascular tissue, transports water and minerals up from roots
Phloem
Another type of vascular tissue, transports sugar, water, amino acids, and hormones throughout the plant
Ground Tissue
Plant tissue that is neither dermal nor vascular
Meristem
Regions of unspecialized cells in which mitosis produces new cells that are ready for differentiation
Nitrogen Fixation
The process by which bacteria in root nodules convert Nitrogen gas to ammonia
Root Pressure
The starting point of movement of water through a plant.
Chloroplasts
Capture energy from the Sun and convert it into food containing chemical energy (glucose).
Stomata
Pores (on the underside of leaves) that allow for gas exchange
Guard Cells
Regulate the opening and closing of the stoma
Capillary Action
The tendency of water to rise in a thin tube
Transpiration
The major force of water transport where the evaporation of water from leaves pulls on the water
Auxin
Stimulates cell elongation and the growth of new roots
Ethylene
A gas that is released by fruit tissues to simulate fruits to ripen
Tropism
Growth responses by plants to environmental stimuli
Angiosperm
A plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel
Gymnosperm
A plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit
Alternation of generations
The life cycle of land plants has two
alternating phases, a diploid (2N) phase and a
haploid (N) phase
Sporophyte
The diploid phase of a land plant
Gametophyte
The haploid phase of a land plant
Pollination
The transfer of pollen
from the male reproductive
structure to the female reproductive
structure
Fertilization
Process in sexual
reproduction in which male and
female reproductive cells join to
form a new cell
Pistil
The female organs of a flower, comprising the stigma, style, and ovary
Stamen
The male fertilizing organ of a flower, typically consisting of a pollen-containing anther and a filament
Biosphere
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere
Populations
Groups of individuals of the same species in the same area
Community
Assemblages of different species in the same area
Ecosystem
A collection of all the organisms in a particular place together with the nonliving or abiotic environment
Biome
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar communities
Biodiversity
Sum total of the genetically based variety of all organisms in the biosphere.
Represents one of our greatest natural resources
Primary Producers or Autotrophs
Organisms that obtain energy directly from sunlight and are the producers of energy rich compounds (carbohydrates)
essential to the flow of energy through the biosphere
Consumer/Heterotroph
Organisms that must acquire energy from other organisms by eating them
Food Chain
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. Shows one way flow of energy in an ecosystem
Food Web
A complex network of feeding interactions
Trophic Levels
Each step in a food chain or web. Only about 10% of energy available in one trophic level is passed to the next level. This is known as the 10% rule.
Chemosynthesis
The use of energy released by inorganic chemical reactions to make energy rich compounds (carbohydrates) rather than sunlight
Biogeochemical Cycle
Elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another. Human activity can also play an important role.
Limiting Nutrient
The nutrient whose supply limits productivity; Common ones include nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron
Weather
The day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place
Climate
The average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
Greenhouse Effect
Heat is retained by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
Biome (climate)
Determined by precipitation and temperature
Photic Zone
The upper layer of the ocean where light penetrates and photosynthesis is possible
Aphotic Zone
The lower layer of the ocean where light does not penetrate and there is no photosynthesis
Estuary
a special kind of wetland, where the river meets the sea. They contain a mixture of salt water and fresh water and serve as spawning and nursery grounds for many ecologically and commercially important fish and shellfish
Phytoplankton
photosynthetic algae found near the surface of the ocean. They produce 70% of Earth's oxygen and are the main consumers of carbon dioxide
Niche
The full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
Competitive Exclusion Principle
No two species can occupy exactly the same niche in exactly the same habitat at exactly the same time.
Symbiosis
Two species live closely together
Mutualism
Both species benefit in symbiosis
Commensalism
One organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed in symbiosis
Parasitism
One species lives on or in another and harms it in symbiosis
Primary Succession
Succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present
Secondary Succession
Succession that occurs in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbance
Circadian Rhythms
Behavior cycles that occur daily
Kin Selection
helping a relative can improve an individual's fitness because related individuals share a large proportion of their genes
Altruism
A behavior that benefits another individual at the cost to the altruist
Habituation
Process by which an animal decreases or stops its response to a repetitive external stimulus that neither rewards nor harms the animal
Classical Conditioning
Stimulus comes to produce response through association with experience; first described around 1900 by Russian Physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who was studying dogs' responses to food
Operant conditioning
occurs when an animal learns to behave in a certain way through repeated practice to either receive a reward or avoid punishment
Innate Behavior/Instinct
thsese behaviors appear in fully functional form the first time they are performed
Animals have no previous experience with the stimuli that triggers the behavior
Exponential Growth
the larger a population gets, the faster it grows; Under ideal conditions a population will grow in this way; in a graph, it appears as a "J" shaped curve
Logistic Growth
occurs when a population's growth slows and then stops, following a period of exponential growth
Carrying Capacity (K)
Maximum number of individuals that a particular environment can support
Biological Magnification
Concentrations of a harmful substance increase in organisms at higher trophic levels.
Ozone Layer
A high concentration of ozone gas (triatomic oxygen) that serves to absorb harmful UV lights before they reach the surface.
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