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EMR CERTIFICATION EXAM- HS2
Terms in this set (98)
The criteria used by the NHSTA to evaluate an EMS system?
1) Regulation and Policy
2) Resource Management
3) Human Resources and Training
4) Transportation Equipment and Systems
5) Medical and Support Facility
6) Communications System
7) Public Information and Education
8) Medical Direction
9) Trauma System and Development
(RP, RM, HRT, TES, MSF, CS, PIE, MD, TSD, E)
used to deliver high concentrations of supplemental oxygen. It consists of a face mask and a reservoir bag that is filled with oxygen.
used to artificially ventilate a patient. It is made of a face mask that is attached to a ventilation bag. When the bag is squeezed by the rescuer, air is forced through the mask and into the patient's airway.
deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues.
forcing air into a patient's lungs when the patient has stopped breathing or is breathing inadequately. (also called positive pressure)
abnormal pattern of breathing (gasping)
The purpose of fire rescue:
First responders that provide specialized rescues
What is the role of an EMR at the scene of an emergency?
helps medics care for critical injuries (Initial Care)
What are the components of quality improvement process?
What effects can alcohol have on the body?
Depression, low ability to deal with stress, impaired judgement, CNS depressant withdrawal symptoms- DTS (delirium treatments)
can be fatal
Causes of stress in an EMR:
experiences- remind you of personal hardships
very young/very old trauma
Why does H1N1 cause the public for concern?
influenza (swine flu)
few people have immunity to this strain
What is the Standard of Care?
manner in which you must act or behave
1) treat patient to best of ability
2) reasonable & prudent person
What establishes competency for your patients?
mentally competent/capacity that can give consent or refuse
What is negligence?
failure to give expected care
duty to act, breach of duty, resulting injuries, proximate cause
Steps when dispatched to a call:
No response until you are informed of the location
What to do if you are in an unsafe scene:
remain calm, wait, request law enforcement
What to do if you are unsure if the scene is safe:
retreat and call for help
What is HIPPA?
Health Insurance Accountability and Portability Act
What is the most important part of HIPPA in regards to EMS
The steps in responding to an emergency
Response to scene
arrival @ scene
updating responding ems units
transferring the care of patient to other personnel
post run activities
How the brain communicates with the body
nerve impulses travel from brain to body through the spinal chord
Away from midline
toward the midline
away from the point of attachment to the body
toward the point of attachment to the body
Leaving a patient before you have completed your care
What is standing down?
staying away until you receive clearance
Effective ways to avoid a violent situation w/ patient
maintain an exit, use good communicator, listen carefully to info given by dispatch, do not physically restrain
Ways to communicate with patients
maintain eye contact, level, no med jar
Why does miscommunication occur?
they are scared, altered
How do you speak to an anxious patient?
limit people talking to a patient
Caring for an unconscious patient:
they can still hear you, airway, primary
Differences between veins and arteries:
V: thin wall that carries blood to the heart/valves
A: Thick muscular walls that carry blood away from the heart
What makes up the shield girdle?
Clavicle, scapula, and humerus
What is skeletal muscle?
voluntary attached to bones by tendon
Location of the main arteries of the body
Femoral, Radical, Carotid, Brachial, Aorta
Function of epiglottis
covers trachea during swallowing
Age range of a 'child' for CPR
1 years old to puberty
What % of a person's blood is plasma?
55% 445 cells
The landmarks for abdominal thrusts:
FBAO: Foreign Body Airway Obstruction
Heimlich Maneuver one first above naval wall below xiphoid process
Function of the four chambers of the heart?
RV- Pumps to lungs
LV- pumps to body
Atria- receiving chambers
Sections of the spine?
Types of muscle?
skeletal- voluntary- striated- (most attached to the bone)
smooth- involuntary (hollow internal organs)
Strongest bone in the body:
What type of joint is the shoulder?
Ball and Socket
Bones in the arm:
Humerus, Radius, Ulna
Chest compression for 1 and 2 rescuer adult CPR:
How to asses pulse
Check carotid no more than 10 seconds/brachial artery on a baby
How to care for a swimmer in cardiac arrest:
Stabilize head and neck and then remove the victim from the water
How to assess temperature:
back of the hand to the forehead
axillary- armpit (least accurate)
1) general impression- as you approach sex/approx age, trauma/illness
2) levels of responsiveness- introduce yourself (name and function here to help) CAB, skin color
3) AVPU- Alert, Verbal,Pain, Unresponsive
Rapid Scan- CAB
Control of serious bleeding
4) Scene size up- location, # of people, main problem, safety of the scene
5) MOI- Mechanism of injury
6) triage- sort according to severity of injuries
Symptoms of a diabetic coma patient and how it occurs:
Fruity breath, warm skin
too much sugar, not enough insulin
hypergliycemia (high blood sugar)
When to collect patient medical history (hx)?
Before secondary assessment/ after primary assessment
S-Signs & Symptoms
P-Past Medical History
L-Last oral intake
E-Events leading to illness or injury
Definition of AMS:
Altered Mental Status/ any change in LOC (loss of consciousness)
What to do if the pupils are not pearl:
Report finding to next level of care when they arrive
Purpose of the oral airway:
maintain an open airway
How to asses a patient with a hearing aid:
speak slow/ clear visually
impaired= glasses patient pointing to ears means he can't hear
Symptoms of poisoning
low respirations, abdominal pain, diarrhea, excessive salivation, nausea, difficulty breathing, altered mental status, pupils, convulsions, sweating, cyanosis, empty containers, burning around the mouth
Routes poison can take
injestion- swallow absorbed through digestive tract
absorbiton- through intact skin
inhilation- mouth/nose absorbed through respiratory membranes
Different types of shock:
hemmoragic, cardiogenic, psych, anaphylactic(hyper sensativity), etc.
First stage of drowning:
Safest approach to rescue patient from water
Reach, throw them something, row to them, go in water
Symptoms of both types of frostbite
Frostnip (superficial): numb, reddish
Frostbite: White, waxy looking
What makes someone vulnerable to frostbite?
Hunger, age, exhaustion
Different types of heat related emergencies and symptoms:
Heat stroke (skin gets dry and low blood pressure and body temperature 106)
When do you not place a shock patient in Trandelenburg position?
respiratory distress, stroke, head injury
Different types of burns:
1st- redness/ slight swelling/ pain epidermis
2nd- redness/blisters/ epidermis
3rd- charring/white- areas w/ no skin
2nd- partial thickness
3rd- full thickness
Respiratory rate for newborns:
How does shock affect pediatric patients
they fall/progress into shock very rapidly
show shock much more slowly than adults
diaphoresis, rapid weak pulse, rapid shallow respirations
Differences between adult and child airway:
smaller and less flexible
hives, rapid pulse, low blood pressure
calm child: comfort position, O2
Why is elderly abuse harder to detect?
isolated from the public
Indications a patient is visually impaired:
glasses, can, points to ears
How to perform a two person carry:
back straight lift with legs
behind patient under arms
in front arms under knees
How to immobilize a patient on backboard:
1) log roll patient to his side
2) slide back board toward patient
3) log roll patient onto backboard
4) center and secure the patient
How to perform a pack's trap carry:
optimal weight distribution
rescuer puts patients armpits over rescuer shoulders
When is it okay to use an improvised device instead of an LBB?
when patient must be moved immediately
When to use modifications for moving?
when patient must be moved due to threat
When to do a blanket drag?
moving from an unsafe environment quickly
Responsibilities during the extrication process?
whatever the superiors tell you to do
Types of elevated confined spaces?
What is golden period/hour and it's relation to trauma?
from the time patient gets help to the time they get advanced care (first hour of care)
Types of injuries cause by firearms
depends on caliber of gun and part of body hit
Major complications associated with a closed head injury:
swelling of the brain/cranial pressure
can lead to death, paralysis, permanent brain damage
Priorities with soft tissue injuries?
When and how to stabilize a helmet?
If it is ill fitting or compromises airway
Hold cervical spine and remove
cord becomes compressed during contractions that stops circulation to the baby
arranged immediate transport
when anything but the head comes out first
if head covered with amniotic sac tear with fingers clear from face
prepare for delivery once you see the head
What to do if you're unable to withdraw from an unsafe scene?
stay calm, don't turn your back on the patient, don't make threatening moves
try to talk and explain that you are there to give emergency assistance
Know what happens in the initial stage of drowning:
mammalian (body's demand for O2) dividing reflex- slows hear and metabolic rate
Safest approach when attempting to rescue a person from the water:
flat on device- between your patient
approach from behind
reach/throw/row/go (use flotation device)
Different types of heat related emergencies:
Symptoms of heat related emergencies:
heat cramps= muscle spasms (electrolyte changes and dehydration)
heat exhaustion- profuse sweating/light headed, dizzy, nausea, weak pulse
heat stroke- not sweating hot/ red/ dry, body temperature above 106 lose consciousness
Types of injuries caused by firearms:
gunshot- special puncture wound- can cause significant internal bleeding
entrance/exit wound- can die from blood loss
The bones of the arm:
upper arm- humerus
lower arm- ulna (elbow or pinky) radius (thumb side)
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