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131 terms

Circulatory System

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Medical term for a sudden and immediate cessation of cardiac contractions
cardiac arrest
The four major parts of the circulatory system are
heart, blood vessels, blood, and lymphatic system
The lubb and dubb sounds you hear are made by
the opening and closing of the valves
The valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle is
tricuspid
Medical term for incomplete contractions of the heart
fibrillation
Medical term meaning any irregular heartbeat
arrhythmia
Medical term meaning an abnormal fluttering of the heart
palpitation
Chamber of the heart pumps blood to the aorta
left ventricle
Chamber of the heart pumps blood to the lungs
right ventricle
Medical term for the commonly used phrase "heart attack"
myocardial infarction
The valves located in the heart are important because they
prevent blood flow from flowing backwards
A bleeding time may assist in determining platelet disorders such as
hemophilia
The 3 layers of the heart are
epicardium, endocardium, myocardium
Blood that leaves the right ventricle is considered
deoxygenated blood
The largest vein is the
vena cava
Treatment of carditis include all of the following except
antihypertensives
Causes of arrhythmias include
medications
The main site for a myocardial infarction is the
left ventricle
The heart receives oxygenated blood as it travels through the
aorta
Symptoms of a myocardial infarction include all of the following except
fever
What is endocarditis
inflammation of the heart lining
Which of the following apply to red blood cells
contain hemoglobin
What is the septum of the heart
the wall in the center
What is the pericardium
a sac that covers the heart
How much blood does an average human have
eight pints
What is phelebitis
inflammation of a vein
The normal peacemaker of the heart where the electrical impulse originate is
sinoatrial node
Diastole is the ____ phase of the heart.
relaxation
This brings oxygen and nutrients to the heart tissue
coronary arteries
Deoxgenated blood enters the right atrium of the
heart
When the right artium contracts it forces blood through the tricuspid valve into the _____ ventricle
right
The right ventricle pumps the used blood to the lungs by way of the _____ artery.
pulmonary
A bulging arterial wall that may produce palpitations or tear
aneurysm
Serve chest pain from a coronary artery spasm
angina
Confusion, weakness of one side, visual changes, paralysis, personality change
CVA
Congestion of blood in the circulatory system; edema of the extremities and lungs
CHF
Blood pressure consistently above normal
hypertension
Consistently low blood pressure
hypotension
This is the inflammation of the heart
carditis
How many red blood cells does a human have in a cubic millimeter of blood
5,000,000
What is the normal range for white blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood?
5,000 to 9,000
How many platelets are in a cubic millimeter of blood?
200,000 to 400,000
An ____ is a circulating foreign substance
embolism
This brings blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary arteries
The quality of the heart to initiate an electrical impulse is called
automaticity
When the ANS is stimulated the heart responds by
speeding up
Abbreviation means any abnormal condition of the coronary arteries
CAD
Abbreviation for a procedure commonly called bypass surgery
CABG
Abbreviation for a procedure for repairing coronary arteries
PTCA
Depolarization of the cells cause the heart muscle to
relax
Vessels commonly used for bypass surgery include the
leg
What is the blood pressure when a patient is with diagnosed hypertension
140/90
The AV node has several important qualities that help the heart function - which one is not quality of AV node
enables a loss of atrial kick
The function of the bundle branch system is to
conduct electrical impulse from the AV node to purkinje fibers
Medical term means compression of the heart due to blood in the pericardial sac
cardiac tamponade
Medical term for abnormal contraction of blood vessels
angiospasm
Normal blood pressure is
120/80
Risk factors for myocardial infarction include
hypertension, smoking, obesity
Where are the coronary arteries located
on the surface of the heart
What is systole
the contraction phase of the heart
What is the name of structure that separates the lower chambers of the heart?
interventricular septum
What is the vessel that brings blood to the heart from the trunk and pelvic region
inferior vena cava
The term for stoppage of blood flow is
hemostasis
A substance that decreases the body's ability to clot is
aspirin
The condition in which the patient experiences chest pain with exertion is
angina pectoris
The condition in which there is a reduction in the quality of red blood cell is
anemia
Signs and symptoms of right sided heart failure include all the following except
pulmonary edema
Which of the following are signs and symptoms of left sided heart failure
pulmonary edema
Congestive heart failure is now called
heart failure
This drug commonly reduces or eliminates angina pectoris due to its ability to increase blood flow to the cardiac muscles by dilating coronary blood vessels
nitroglycerin
A heartbeat that is below 60 beats per minute is called
bradycardia
Surgical procedure is done to provide the myocardium with a new source of blood supply when a coronary artery is occluded
coronary artery bypass graft
Chronic condition in which the enlarge heart cannot pump sufficient amounts of oxygenated blood to the body
congestive heart failure
Acute coronary syndrome includes all of the following conditions except
acute endocarditis
What is the septum of the heart
the wall in the center
Which heart chamber receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
left atrium
What is the principle sign of coronary artery disease
reduction of blood supply to the myocardium
What takes place as a result of a myocardial infarction
portion of the heart muslce dies
A bruit noted during auscultation in the area of a blood vessel is often a sign of
aneurysm
The _____ is the blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart
pulmonary vein
The ____ is the saclike membrane surrounding the heart
pericardium
Cyanois is characterized by which of the following
by hypoxia
The blood vessel branching from the heart that carries deoxgenated blood to the lungs is called the
pulmonary artery
Which drug is used for congestive heart failure
digoxin (lanoxin)
Which drug is used for an anticoagulant
warfarin (coumadin)
The blood vessels that contain valves
veins
Which blood protein aid in clotting
fibrinogen and prothrombin
The bright red color of blood indicates
hemoglobin-carrying oxygen
Ischemina of the myocardium causes
angina
The PT is in the emergency department with an occluded coronary artery due to a thrombus - which drug will be administered
thrombolytic drug
How many chambers are inside the heart
four
Abbreviation CRP stands for
c-reactive protein
Bicuspid means
2 cusps
Trace the pathway of blood through the pulmonary and systemic circulation beginning at the vena cava, going to a capillary of the body, and returning to the atrium of the heart
right atrium into right ventricle; then right and left pulmonary veins to left atrium; left ventricle through semilunar valve to aorta to aorta to arterioles and capillaries of the body; superior and inferior vena cava and into the right atrium
Which artery brings oxygenated blood to the brain, head, and face
carotid
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called
arteries
What color will blood exhibit if it has high oxygen content
red
What is the name of the structure that separates the lower chambers of the heart
interventricular septum
What is another name for the left atrioventricular valve
biscuspid valve
Which section of the heart receives blood from the right coronary artery
right ventricle
Capillary beds are fed by the
arterioles
The ___ nervous system signals blood vessels to constrict or dilate
sympathetic
In terms of their location or movement, an embolus is a ____ clot, and a thrombus is a ____ clot
floating/moving, stationary
Blood moves through blood vessels in which of the following sequences, starting from the heart?
arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
____ is a blood condition in which there is a less than normal number of red blood cells or there is abnormal or deficient hemoglobin.
anemia
In a physical assessment, the heart rate is determined by palpating the pulse in the ____ artery in the wrist.
radial
Which measurement is a reading from a sphygmomanometer?
120/80
The section of the electrical conduction system of the heart that is located just after the AV node is the
bundle of His
Which test could provide information to determine the extent of coronary artery narrowing
cardiac catheterization
Which word is derived from a Greek word meaning dilation?
aneurysm
Which ultasonography images the flow of blood in the arteries
doppler
The combining from transplant/o means
to move something to another place
The first arteries to branch off of the aorta feed the heart muscle itself. These arteries are called
coronary arteries
The smallest blood vessel in the body is the
capillary
Which serous membrane covers the outer surface of the myocardium
epicardium
All of the following structures are part of the electrical system of the heart except
HDL
Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart is known as
pericarditis
Congestive heart failure involving the right side of the heart would be evident in the body as
edematous feet
The combining from ven/o- has the same meaning as the combining from
phleb/o
Defibrillation is a way to
treat a serious arrhythmia
This test is used to determine the amount of red blood cells packed in a specific volume of blood
Hct
The Pro Time is
performed to evaluate coumadin therapy, also know as prothrombin time, a timed test to measure the blood's ability to clot
All of the following are causes of anemia except
dietary insufficiency
Lower than predicated values of hematocrit can be caused by
acute massive hemorrhage
An increased level of hemoglobin can be the result of all of the following except
pregnancy
A patient with type B blood was accidentally given a transfusion of type A blood. red blood cells were destroyed as a result. This is known as
hemolysis
Patients on heparin will have a higher than normal value for ______ in their blood
partial thromboplastin
Which is the fluid portion of the plasma that remains when clotting factors in the plasma are activated to form a blood clot
serum
Which is a blood test performed to monitor the effectiveness of the anticoagulant heparin when it is given in high doses to cardiac surgery patients?
activated clotting time (ACT)
Which of the following contains hemoglobin that transports oxygen to the cells
erythrocyte
Abbreviation for CPR stands for
cardiopulmonary resuscitation