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Miller and Levine Biology-Chapter 21-Fungi-Vocabulary and Content

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What are the defining characteristics of fungi?
They have cell walls made up of chitin
Definition of "Chitin"
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi
How do fungi absorb its nutrients?
They digest food outside their body then they absorb it (usually absorbs it from the ground) Some of them are also parasitic
Definition of "Hyphae"
thin filaments that make up multicellular fungi
Describe the structure of fungi
made up of hyphae. Sometimes there are cross walls that divide the hyphae that divide the hyphae containing one or 2 nuclei
What is the internal structure pf a fungus?
The bodies of multicellular fungi are composed of many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass called a mycelium
Definition of "Mycelium"
thick mass of hyphae that is well suited to absorb food because it permits a large surface are to come in contact with the food source which is grows
Why is Mycelium capable of absorbing food?
well suited to absorb food because it permits a large surface area to come in contact with the food source which is grows
Definition of "Fruiting Body"
Reproductive structure growing from the mycelium in the soil beneath it.
What happens when the soil nutrients near the center of the mycelium become depleted?
Mew mushrooms sprout only at the edges of the mycelium
How do fungi reproduce?
Asexually or Sexually
When does asexual reproduction take place in fungi?
When cells or hyphae break off from a fungus and begin to grow on their own.
Definition of "Sporangia"
structures where spores are produced
Definition of "Sporangiophores"
specilized hyphae where sporangia are found
Explain sexual reproduction in fungi
there are two mating partners (one is called +, and another -) When they meet, they fuse forms a diploid cell. These cells are capable of growing
How do fungi spread?
Fungi produces spores that are blown across enviroments. They can grow when there are favorable conditions, but the chance is unlikely
Favorable conditions of fungi?
Proper combination of temperature, moisture, and food
Example of fungi that can lure animals
Stinkhorns (when flies land on a stinkhorn, the flies ingest the smelly fluid on top of the fungus. This is unharmful, but it can be used to deposite spores out of the mosquitoes' body)
What are the four phyla of fungi?
Zygomites, Ascomycota, Basidomycota, Deutryomycota
Defining characteristics of Zygomites
They have life cycles that include a zygospore
Definition of "Zygospore"
Resting spore that contains zygotes formed during the sexual phase of a mold's life cycles
Example of Zygomites
black bread mold
Defintion of "Rhizoids"
Rootlike hyphae that penetrate the mold's surface
Definition of "Stolons"
Stemlike hyphae that push up into the mold's surface
Defintion of "Gamentanga"
Gamete-forming structures that are formed when hyphae fuse
Life Cycle of Molds
Significance of sexual process followed by meisosis
Produces combinations of genetic information that may help the organism meet changing environmental conditions
Defining characteristic of phylum Ascomycota
Has an ascus, a reproductive structure that contains spores
How do Ascomycota reproduce?
Sexually and asexually
Definition of "conida"
Spores that appear in asexual reproduction that are formed at the tips of condidophores (special hyphae)
What happens when a conidum lands in a suitable environment?
It grows into a haploid mycelium
Sexual reproduction of Ascomycota
Definition of "ascus"
loctation where two nuclei of different mating types fuse to form a diploid zygote
Definition of "ascospores"
Haploid spore produced within the ascus of ascomyctetese
What do the dry ganulates in yeast contain?
aescospores
Defintion of "budding"
Asexual reproduction in yeast
Defining characteristics of phylum Basidomycota (club fungi)
It has a specialized reproductive structure that resembles a club
Life cycle of Basidiomycota
(insert picture)
Definition of "Basidiospores"
Spores in basidiomycetes that germinates to produce haploid primary mycelia
Are all mushrooms edible?
No, some are poisonous
Defining characteristic of phylum Deuteromycota
Composed of other fungi that are not placed with other phylum that are not placed in other phyla because the sexual cycles differ
Example of an imperfect fungi
Penicillium
How can fungi catch food?
Their mycelia can grow very rapidly into the tissues and cells of plants and other organisms
Definition of "Saprobes"
organisms that obtain food from decaying matter
Ways fungi get food
Symbosis,from dead matter,parasites
What is the main role of fungi in natural systems?
they maintain equilibrium in nearly every ecosystem, where they recycle nutrirents by breaking down the bodies into wastes of other organism
How do fungi break down food?
They release digestive enzymes that break down matter.
What problems do parasitic fungi cause?
They can cause diseases in MOSTLY plant and animals, some of them can affect humans
What are two examples of plant diseases caused by fungi and explain them?
1) wheat rust-rusts are caused by a basidiomyte that needs two different plants to complete its life cycle. The spores germinate on plants and the wind blows them to fields. The fallen spores germinate and infect wheat plants. Later, the newly produced spores grow more spores. The cycle continues 2)Corn smut(no it is not nasty fanfiction it's an actual thing)- affects crops mostly corn, The spores that survive in the soil in the winter grow in the spring
What are two examples of plant diseases of fungi and explain them?
1)athlete's foot-the fungus forms on the outer layers of the skin. The spores can pass on from person to person easily. 2)Canidada Albicans- Canida in the body is kept in check by the body. When this gets disrupted by factors (ex.use of antibiotics), Canida might produce a painful mouth infection
Explain the infection of the fungus from the genus Cordyceps
Spores become longed in the grasshopper where they germinate and shut down the oxygen paths and organs cells.
What kinds of symbiotic relationships do fungi form from other organisms?
Mutualism, examples of lichen and mycorrihzae
What are the two partners involved in the relationship of lichen?
A fungus and a photosynthetic organism
Can lichens live in extreme environments?
very
What are the roles of the fungus and the photosynthetic organism in fungi?
The photosynthetic organism provides the fungus with a source of energy, the fungi provides the photosynthetic organism with water and minerals that it collects. It also protects the organism
Ecological role of lichens?
1)they break down the rocks on which they grow 2)they help in the early stages of soil formation
Are lichens sensitive to air pollution?
A lot
Definition of "Mycorrhizae"
Symbiotic relationship of plant roots and fungi
How do fungi benefit plants?
The tiny hyphae of fungi aid plants in absorbing water and minerals (it expands the roots) Fungi also releases enzymes that free nutrients in the soil, this provides the fungi wit the products of photosynthesis.