Dancing skeletons book report notes

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Page 11-16
main character= doctor like
looks at a child who's having eating problems and the boy is severely malnutrition,
Main character has Ph.D in physical anthropology, field work in Magnambougou near Barmako, capital of country of Mali, west Africa
Tried helping mom get son to eat, child was loged at Kid 104
6 years later in 1989 kid 104, 8 years old trying to find him
Now main chara. was assistant professor of nutritional anthropology on Fulbright Scholar grant , took 9 year old daughterand left son at home with husband in U.S.s
MC lived in Mali for 2 years in the early
First living arrangement was horrible, the lights didn't work and no air-conditioning
Moussa Diarra- friend of hers, former field assisant who lived in Magnambougou, she hired him again this time spoke English fluently, also hired Oumou Drame, old friend to watch Miranda during day
Tom Kane demographer for American research, for Rockefeller Foundation studying maternal mortality
Tom stayed with them and helped with rent
She went through culture shock due to the conditions in Mali getting much worse with the overload of garbage and sewage drains
Offer hope to complete several projects one was to relocate the children from her and 1981 through 1983 research to determine their nutritional status she wanted to gather as much data as possible for evidence of common growth pattern in nutritionist populations
pages 17-22
Another project was visit New households measure members conduct extent semi-structured interviews about infant feeding police ultimate goal was to develop cultural appropriation education programs final aspect was research was to determine intestinal parasites about to be common in most third world communities resulting in major contributor to poor growth in children in Maui
Author use numbers to identify children because be more practical and Sadie research people will not be exposed children in this particular area or giving Muslim names Carolina kids who were given similar names greetings are indispensable part of daily life in Mali greetings are a sign of lightness and respect hire persons that is longer and more elaborate should the greeting be
French language to them is known as toubabou-kan
Language is a source of immense power the ability to speak bambara was one of the greatest assets after reacquainting with child 104 he seemed a lot healthier and his mother said that she was the reason one that he is alive today
Pages 23-34
Mosquitoes in Mali were annoying and dangerous because they carried malaria the reason why she left the first time in 1983 was because of death and mosquitoes the death of Kay the Peace Corp volunteer
come to a resistant strain of cerebral malaria lapsing into a coma in a bush Taxi the second event was the deaths from hepatitis of a member of the Americans expatriate community
Planes how they wanted to take a different trip to somewhere else but however it got delayed and cancelled because of the Muslim Ramadan
When you study people as anthropologists do by living with them and becoming participants in it as well as observe them and their lives you can't manipulate the people you study have to rely on cooperation usually people will set out setting a particular topic that they want to study however they end up setting a different topic or different people Stephen her husband studied migrant farmers and she studied breastfeeding and weaning practices and child growth Mali is a landlocked country Edge western edge of African continent many different ethnic groups of Mali most populous Santa Bambara subsistence farmers
River surrounds ancient Island City Fortress Djenné mosque
Magnambougou site of research choosen for convenience
When they finished their research they returned to the Indiana University to analyze their data and write dissertations however they were to stay because they did not live like the natives this town was about 15,000 inhabitants who lived in compounds if people were more poor than the poorest Americans but it isn't as shaky town the compounds don't have running water or electricity polygamous marriages and extended families lived in large compounds Miranda was probably the last child to be vaccinated with smallpox do to waho declaring it eradicated in the late 1970s in this particular area measles malaria upper respiratory infections and diarrhea major illnesses of young children may 1982 serious outbreak of measles practically killed every child that year
Pages 35-40
This point in time her and her colleague Moussa were about to examine two girls of their growth development however they were just recently circumsized
Usually girls in this particular area are circumcised that too to is that I must younger age making it more likely for them to survive however these girls were older
Bambara practice female circumcision removal of the clitoris for removing the hood of the clitoris
Infibulation involves clitoridectomny plus outer labia cut making sexual intercourse impossible
Until cut open for sex
Usually occurs around 6 months old, this culture thinks it's weird that females aren't circumsized in the US but males are
In Malian culture, it's thought that isn't not necessary for a women's pleasure in sex, just the man's
Fat lady from timbuktu helps cheer her up
Malia women know that breastfeeding has a contraceptive effect they also believe nursing too long cause the child to be stupid
Pages 41-46
Obesity in this culture is seen beautiful signifies the man is wealthy and able to provide plenty of food to be fat is to be healthy even more importantly to be fun is to be sexy
The other found a woman who had leprosy he also seemed to be mentally retarded and that's why she didn't understand why her son wouldn't eat anything in Mali they don't have Federal corporations that help mothers and infants
Pages 47-58
Heather Katz worked for her to spend gall as unpaid research assistant
Village huts are swept away by rain falls
Her and her assistant when to Magnambougou finish up final of research project in intestinal parasites
bache is a small pickup truck with tailgate removed
And inside of truck built in wooden benches
Toubabs are offered seats next to driver considered more genteel, usually only peace corps or anthropologists regularly rode the baches, it's generally difficult to figure out how much it cost and where it's going
No marked bus stops
Seat next to door was a boy who collect fares and looked out for policemen
Women in Mali don't carry purses
Men have it on their robes and corner of cloth to carry babies for women
Malians love to laugh at Toubabs
Malains like to help those in need
Rules of giving alms,it's best to pick one person and always give something to that person
Another way to attain Grace other than giving Beggars money was to show respect to old women and men respect for elders is a part of daily life when her husband's grandmother visited in 1982 people spontaneously bound and her knees for respect of her age, their go's is Allah
Bamako is capital
She used a veterinary paraitologist at Bamako veterinary lab to analyze the samples of urine for parasites most people helped with the project because they would be getting free testing
4 out of the 68 specimens showed intestinal parasites 2 had Acaris
Malians are Muslim so they don't eat pork
34 of the 68 specimens had eggs for Schistomoa which is black water fever
Parasites burrowed under
Skin around ankles
Malian parents don't usually see children's feces because they go out in the woods
Some in a Bozo tribe thought 1st appearance of red urine is a girls first menarche even though it's really the disease
Her next project was to add children and adults to growth and development and interviews with caretakers about infants feeding
Pages 59-68
Malian women's day starts with hours worth of millet grinding then breakfast then hard labor if hauling water, then buying food then cooking three meals
Well known adage in Mali that Toubabs preferred rice over millet
Usually given a chair instead of a stool and an individual bowl instead of a sharing bowl and a spoon instead of use of fingers
Eating with fingers on right hand is fine art
Left handedness is reserved for cleansing after using the latrine
Eatting and handling and food preparation is done with right hand
She asked about how they used spending money
Most people wouldn't give a straight answer and even the poorest would eat a similar amount to less poor people
Interviewing the people about food habits was like pulling teeth
Difficult to pin a certain amount of each woman spends on good because in third world countries everything is negotiable
Best place to observe enconmic activity is at the Grande Marche or big market, it's a place where all your senses with me stimulated and full of new senses
She would barging with her friend sidi for this fulani wedding blanket that those people would use in a new weds tents
Currency is CFA
Pages 69-100
Health officer at U.S agency for international development bureau in Bamako suggested Bakary from AMIPJ ans Kathleen from freedom for hunger
To design nutrition education for AMIPJ credit
Mr. Traore heads Bamako staff and field project in Dogo
Joking is considered officating and trading insults , with respect
There are joking relationships between specific kinsmen, particularly last names
Diarra and Traore usually joke about beans
The author was asked to help give the nutritional sessions if she could conduct her research on these people and was sponsored by AMIPJ ans was given some extra specials like a 4 wheel drive vehicles and a bonanza and clean huts
While she went surveying she placed Miranda with English missionary family
people in Dogo grow their own cotton for clothing
Falaye Doumbia was field project director
Paillote traditional sleeping areas
Westerners are always known to carry well supply of medicines
The people there would take a siesta after lunch
The Dogo village bathroom system had a hole where you rinse your feces into it
Kwashiorkor is a disease found in children ages 2 to 3 that their diet is severely deficient in protein but rich in calories
Found in communities where protein is low in their foods, common in richer wetter countries of West Africa like guinea or Cameroon who rely on cassava
The people call it Funu Bana meaning swelling sickness
Pages 85-89
Second trip to Dogo, Bakary had a car accident and they were late to s training session but afterwards
Then they traveled to torokoro a remote village in AMIPJ survey
They measured the people by head male then 1st wife and children then 2nd wife and then children
Islam offically limits 4 wives per male
In the west, wealth tends to flow down the generations, the more children the further a family's income is stretched
However in west Africa and other third world countries wealth flows up generations
In the west we measure success via accumulation of material goods
In Mali man's success in measured in number of children
Human babies are evolved to expect breast feeding for first several years
Co-sleeping with mother and child has shown that the baby with mimic the mothers behavior when while sleeping, Anthropologist James McKenna has found a link between with baby sleeping alone and SIDs
malian babies usually naked and only wear an amulet
The children we confused on her being a toubu and white and speaking bambara
In the United States children who are developmentally delayed and have no known diagnosis are called FLK, funny looking kids
After she was finished with her measurements in Torokoro the village had a drum ceremony
at a town meeting the cheif stated that children who never grow up for the malnutrition was placed in the bush and are gone the next day, though to turn into snakes, thought to be evil spirits
this author seems to have a split between her personal life and her anthropology life in Mali
Pages 101-108
When she measured the people she also counted the number of teeth each person had
She was interested in 3rd molar eruption as evidence that rural Malian adult had faces and jaws large enough for them
People in mou.. have beautiful teeth due to lack of refine sugars and the traditional tooth sticks
In Dogo people people good food shouldn't be wasted on children
Medicine on Mali is very underdeveloped, the people share needles do to the doctors not giving them with the treatments which spreads AIDS much quicker
In N'tenkoni boys who are circumcised where special clothing and are paraded around town and carry these sistrums that make loud noises to tell people known that the boy is coming
Down syndrome children are referred to angels
It's consider a special gift from God
Pages 111-124
After measuring the people in N'tenkoni the team when to a town called Famabougou
in this town people mostly had the last name Thiero or Keminaani, a Thiero women would marry and Keminaani male and vice versa
they were a exogamy which ment you had to marry outside your clan
She did measured everybody in the town
A problem with plaguing nutrition education is that communities with widespread malnutrition get used to how the children look
in rural Dogo the people tend to be short
The people in Magnambougou and Bamako generally were really tall
there was one guy in the town who didnt have the common surname and was noble hunter with a gold earring
traditionally hunters had special powers in the Bambara community and wore special clothing
Dogo had a population of about 500 people, in this population iodine was a major definiceny
women are more likely to get goiters then males
because of the hormones associatied with menstrutration and pregnancy
they measured over 300 people in one day
tea brewing in west africa was excusively down by men
the men in these villages never cooked only the women did
In Mali only women cooked and men weaved clothing
in cameroon women sewed and weaved clothing
In the U.S children soon learned that girls will play will dolls and the boys will play with trucks
they soon were going to live but first had to get gas which requried borrowing a bicycle
Pages 125-137
At this point in time steven, her husband had come and visit her and miranda, she had been away for 4 months
they were going to Dogo for a three day trip and she is going to give her priliminary findings presentation
Every large town in Mali had a large dance ground consisting of oval area of 60 feet long or more
in dogo the people were performing a special dance in her honor
the inner ring of women dances were the older ones which are women 30 and up
the outtest circle was young boy running around the women
the goiters and dogo were very common
common food they ate was rice and with a peanut butter sauce
Second day of their trip they went to N'tenkoni
138-140
when they come to N'tenkoni women were extracting karite oil out of nuts or shea, ovens over 4 feet tall, rolled into various sized balls
malian women have sagger breasts due to lack bra, tight child supporting clothing and numerous births
malian men prefer thighs over breast
this town indigenous locks were common
carved shape bodies with big ear lobes to hear the thieves
Islam banned representational locks so draw geometric shapes, they bought one and were going to buy another one but someone else bough it
141-148
Now they are back in Bamako, and met up with Gerry Cashion, who worked for the international development in Lagos, Nigeria
after that night Steven had to leave, In November she continued growth and development work in Magnambougou increases her sample size, she gain access to children in the schools
The number of children decreased as the grades when up because parents couldnt afford to pay the expenses
children couldn't start school till 8 years old, the school was taught in french not Bambara
because french is the offiical language
in her evenings she worked on reports on the Dogo surveys for Freedom from Hunger
Malian people are known for their Bambara proverbs like "Just when its time to go to bed isnt the time to say youre hungry" meaning you should plan ahead

they made photocopies of all their records, peope where very surprised that they knew how to work it
She has drawn close to many people working down here like a young girl named Ami, her mother had three other children but died from various things like hrdocephaly, malaria and measels
149-158
At this point she was in a town of Sego with Claudia Fishman a nutritional anthropologist working for the Academy for educational development AED, went to Macina in northern Malias enthnographic consultants for a vitamin A deficiency project funded via AED
supported by CARE
The author is a physical anthropologists
the CARE project would start in a village providing on numerous resources like clean water, vaccines and how to properly faciliate a birth and how to help with clean cooking, then CARE would wean the community off with their help until they were fully independent and then CARE would be assigned a new "virgin" town
Her and Claudia Fishman went to the party CARE was hosting for several of their independent villages, at this ceremony the author saw the children who were severely underweight and malnutritioned dancign with no smiles on their faces, this is how she came up with Dancing skeletons, the sight made the author very upset and sad and angered
the author argued with one of the CARE people saying they needed to focus more on nutrition and that would help rid measels and other illnesses that can cause death
to help with the vitamin A definicey, they would vitamin A capsules that were available in the local markets to help with night blindness, all of this was in Macina
159-
Miranda, her daughter was in the hospital at this point due to malaria they had an iv going and Quinimax to help with the malaria
All began after leaving a pool part the American children had whose parents worked for the Embassy or AID, had a high fever and lethargy
In Mali so many children die from many things and malaria can be one of them, malaria, fever, cough, diarrhea, stomachache, headache, sore in the throat, kungolo chi, convulsions, funu bana, measles
People there believe that if a child is taken you shouldnt mourn because that child is with Allah
The amount of children is usually due to the mans wishes, the parents usually pick out the husbands
Two things people seem to deduce why malnutrition happens, one lack of resources or the beeing ignorant and inappropriate cultural beliefs like children dont eat solids till like 10
after about a day, Miranda was awake and feeling much better, it was time for them to go home
Page 173-
Peter, her son, didn't recognize her until a full month later, miranda recovered her chloroquine and paludrine-resistant malaria
the author returned to teaching and writing at Texas A and M, and worked with Freedom from Hunger and their programs in Dogo
Bakary formed CANEF supported by Freedom from Hunger focusing on Credit with Education activities
She continued to be affiliated with Academy for Educational Development
August 1991 had another baby boy
Moussa became President Moussa Traore in spring 1991