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Ch10 Information Technology & Systems Infrastructure
Terms in this set (87)
Accredited Standards Committee (ACS) X12
A committee accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) responsible for the development and maintenance of electronic data interchange (EDI) standards for many industries.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Standard development organizations (SDOs) bring together all the stakeholders to a standards arena and, through an open, voluntary consensus-based process, create standards for their industry. SDOs often seek accreditation under the American National Standards Institute by way of validating that they are representative of industry stakeholders and have produced standards that are non-biased to any one group of the stakeholders they are attempting to represent.
The configuration, structure, and relationship of hardware, the machinery of the computer including input/output devices, storage devices and so on, in an information system.
1. The process of identifying the source of health record entries by attaching a handwritten signature, the authors initials, or an electronic signature. 2. Proof of authorship that ensures, as much as possible, that log in and messages from a person or system originated from an authorized source.
The process where in data and instructions that are used repeatedly are temporarily stored in a computer to speed up access.
Central processing unit (CPU)
The circuitry of a computer that causes the electronic components to function.
Client/server (C/S) architecture
A computer architecture in which multiple computers (clients) that store and process application software and data are connected to other computers (servers) that enter data and receive information.
Clinical document architecture (CDA)
And HL7 XML-based document markup standard for the electronic exchange model for clinical documents (such as discharge summaries and progress notes)
A model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (example: network, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisions and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
Committee on Operating Rules for Information Exchange (CORE)
An initiative of the Council for affordable quality healthcare (CAQH), a nonprofit alliance of health plan and trade associations, to make the HIPAA financial and administrative transactions more predictable and consistent.
Computer output to laser disk (COLD)
Optical discs started out being used in healthcare to store images of documents. Optical disks may come in a compact disc form and be used for offline storage. (Pg. 294 not a very good description)
Copy and paste
A process where in a clinician copies and entry from a previous note or a different patient and paste it into a new entry. This is one of the most commonly used aids in data entry and one that poses considerable risk.
The location where computers in their components are housed.
A common data entry strategy in computer applications were data may be copied or supplied from a predefined set of content; strong caution must be applied to ensure that the entry is entirely applicable to the new situation.
1. The status to which a computer application reverts in the absence of alternative instructions. 2. Pertains to an attribute, value, or option that is assumed when one is explicitly specified.
An electronic document that establishes a persons online identity.
Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)
A standard that promotes a digital image communications format and picture archive and communication system for use with digital images.
A storage technique which mirrors data from a primary drive to a secondary in the event of a drive failure.
Dual-core or multi core processors combining two or more processors into a single integrated circuit. Such technology boosts the computers multitasking capability.
Two separate physical computer processors, running in parallel.
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
A standard transmission format using strings of data for business information communication among the computer systems of independent organizations.
The process of transforming text into an unintelligible string of characters that can be transmitted via communications media with a degree of security and then decripted when it reaches the source destination.
A popular protocol (format) for transmitting data and local area networks.
eXtensible markup language (XML)
A standardize computer language that allows the interchange of data as structured data.
A system of connections of private Internet networks outside and organizations firewall that uses Internet technology to enable collaborative applications among enterprises.
full redundancy should also work simultaneously, so that if one component fails, there is automatic failover to the remaining system. So if your power supply gets cut, a back up power supply automatically takes over so that proper shut down or continuous use can take place.
A hardware and/or software that provides a security barrier to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network.
1. Software that is distributed free of charge to the user, often in the form of web-based software paid for through advertising directed to the user. 2. Free and open-source software is free of charge to the user, and the underlying program source code is able to be accessed by the acquirer of the software.
The entry of narrative data via keyboarding, dictation, voice recognition, and/or handwriting recognition.
The state of a computer system in which all critical components, including hardware, software, power, and telecommunication capabilities, are duplicated as a contingency measure.
Graphical user interface (GUI)
The manner in which computer commands are displayed to a user to make using the computer easier; generally utilizing small images (icons) that represent tasks, functions, and programs performed by the software program.
Health Level Seven (HL7)
An ANSI-accredited standards development organization dedicated to creating standards for the exchange, management, and integration of electronic health information.
The combination of input device and user interface software used by humans to access and enter data into a computer system.
A small image that represents tasks, functions, and programs performed by a software program.
Institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE)
An organization that develop standards for a wide range of technologies from computing to aerospace, communications, robotics, and others, including the 802.11 standard for a wireless local area networks. IEEE also develops standards for linking point-of-care make medical devices and clinical information systems.
A set of standards developed by IEEE for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication.
Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE)
An initiative that brings healthcare stakeholders together to develop profiles that provide precise definition of how DICOM, HL7, W3C, and security standards can be implemented to improve the sharing of information across desperate systems in order to meet specific clinical needs.
The zone between different computer systems across which users wanted to pass information (for example, a computer program written to exchange information between systems or the graphic display of an application program designed to make the program easier to use).
A software tool that manages many interface connections among many disparate systems.
The ability of different information systems and software applications to communicate and exchange data.
A private information network that is similar to the Internet but who's servers are located inside a firewall or security barrier so that the general public cannot gain access to information housed within the network.
A computer architecture built with a single central processing component to which terminals and/or personal computers without extensive processing capability of their own are connected.
Medical identity theft
The inappropriate or unauthorized misrepresentation of individually identifiable health information for the purpose of obtaining access to property or services, which may result in long-lasting harm to an individual interacting with the healthcare continuum.
Standards that support a uniform format and sequence of data during transmission from one health information system to another; see also transactions standards.
Small, hand-held computing devices with a display screen and touch input and/or keyboard, weighing less than 2 pounds; earlier devices focus on the data storage and display, with newer devices adding communication and processing capabilities.
Massachusetts general hospital utility multiprogramming system / M technology (MUMPS)
A programming language, database management system, and related protocols developed in the 1970s and still widely used today (parts of), healthcare information system application; formally Massachusetts general hospital utility multiprogramming system (MUMPS)
National Council for Prescription Drug programs (NCPDP)
A not-four-profit ANSI-accredited standards development organization founded in 1977 that develops standards for exchanging prescription and payment information.
National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)
And agency of the US Department of commerce, NIST was founded in 1901 as the nations first federal physical science research laboratory, which now also serves as the federal government's standards development organization, especially with respect to information security standards.
National Provider Identifier (NPI)
was adopted through regulation in 2004 that all providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses must use in the HIPAA administrative and financial transaction. A National Plan and Provider Enumeration System was created to assign the NPI to providers it also provides registry of NPIs.
Keyboards, handwriting recognition pads and pens (or stylus), and voice recognition microphones associated with them for data entry and retrieval as well as areas token slots, biometrics, and other devices for security.
Provision of computer resources to users as needed, either within the users organization or, more commonly in healthcare, through a service provider often using cloud computing. For example, data analytics processing may only be needed occasionally for special projects, so the organization would only need to pay for such resources as used; see also cloud computing
Software in which the underlying program source code is available to be accessed by the acquirer of the software; open-source does not imply the software is free.
Open systems interconnection (OSI) model
Rules developed by the international standards organization (ISO) that describe the seven layers with which data pass through, such as in human readable form at the highest layer to the electrical impulses are wave forms at the lowest layer, in order to be communicated from one system to another.
The necessary business rules and guidelines for the electronic exchange of (HIPAA transaction) information that are not defined by a standard or its implementation specification; mandated for adoption under the affordable care act of 2010.
Operating system software is consider the instructions, or platform, which cause applications to work. Operating systems perform basic tasks such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on a disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS)
The standard developed by five major credit card associations to protect customer information through the global adoption of consistent data security measures.
The combination of the hardware and operating system (OS), such as Windows, Mac OS, and mobile OS, on which an application program can run.
The degree to which the integrity of workflow can be maintained between systems and includes maintaining and conveying information such as user roles, data protection, and system service quality between systems.
The CPU, sometimes called the processor, is an area of the computer where data in machine-readable form are processed according to specific instructions (Software) that also are machine-readable form. (Processors are made of semiconductor material etched on a small electric device called a silicon chip or an integrated circuit.)
Public key infrastructure (PKI)
A system of digital certificates and other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in a secure transaction.
Red Flags Rule
A set of FTC regulations that require certain entities to develop and implement identity theft prevention program; limited to healthcare organizations that utilize credit reporting to establish payment plans.
Redundant array of independent (or inexpensive) disks (RAID)
A form of data storage that combines multiple disc drives into a logical unit to improve access performance and reliability.
A measure of consistency of data items based on their reproducibility and an estimation of their error of measurement.
Remote Desktop Services
Is another form of architecture that essentially creates a thin client where Windows applications for the entire desktop running terminal services is made accessible to a remote computer.
1. The sharpness and clarity of an image on a display screen. 2. The solution or settlement of a problem or issue.
The process of identifying possible threats that may exploit an organization's vulnerabilities and identifying which risks should be proactively addressed and which risks are lower in priority. (HIPAA security rule requires covered entities to perform a security risk analysis, and a similar process may be a prudent exercise with respect to EHR configuration and use)
Screen real estate
The size of the screen, especially with respect to the amount of data that can be viewed from a single screen.
A high-level programming language that is used primarily to add functionality, such as dynamic advertisements, to a webpage or other browser-based technology.
The permanent storage of data and programs that are directly accessible to the central processing unit of a computer.
The degree to which there is mutual understanding of the meaning of data exchange between information systems.
Service-oriented architecture (SOA)
A logical way of designing software in modular and flexible components, called services; services are often, though not always, provided over the Internet or an intranet.
Comprised of multiple types of storage devices connected to one another and to central servers are being created to manage data storage. (Page 295)
Computers that are characterized by a writing slate.
The degree to which networks, systems, devices, or components are able to exchange and use data and a matter for which they are have the basic capability.
A term used to describe the hardware in a mainframe computer system by which data may be entered or retrieved.
A computer with processing capability but no persistent storage (disk memory) that relies on data and applications on a host server it accesses to enter, retrieve, and have data being used processed.
The movement of inputs and outputs through a production process; often studied to achieve more rapid processing.
Trunk lines or T-lines are the backbone for long distance, packet-switched network transmission that transmits data in digital form. They come in a variety of speeds and may also carry voice.
In networking terms, the physical or logical arrangement of a network.
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
A battery-powered device that provides power when the main power fails; it is intended to provide instantaneous protection from power interruptions for a short period of time that is sufficient to allow an auxiliary power source to be connected or to properly shut down the protected equipment.
Universal serial bus (USB)
And industry standard develop in the mid-1990s that defines communication protocols used to connect computer peripherals, such as keyboards in storage devices for example, USB drives, also called thumb drives or flash drives, with computers.
A version of a hardware platform, operating system, storage device, or network resources that effectively, but not actually, perform the function of the resource; used to distribute computing resources for improved performance and load-balancing while maintaining's central administration. ( The simulation of the software and/or hardware upon which another software runs. Pg. 299)
Virtual private network (VPN)
An encrypted tunnel through the Internet that enables secure transmission of data.
Web services architecture (WSA)
And architecture that utilizes web-based tools to permit communication among different software applications.
Workgroup on Electronic Data Interchange (WEDI)
A multi-stakeholder, nonprofit organization dedicated to improving administrative efficiency, quality, and cost-effectiveness of healthcare information; acts as an advisor to HHS, on HIPPA, transactions and codes sets.
A computer designated to except data from multiple sources in order to assist in managing information for daily activities and to provide a convenient means of entering data as desired by the user at the point of care.
Workstation on wheels (WOW)
Carts with computers on them, may also include a medications dispensing drawer, and a large battery.
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