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Provide an accurate summary of the important aspects of your data using as few numbers as possible
Uses to make inferences or generalizations from data collected from observing a small sample
not applicable to nominal or ordinal scale data. Is known as the average. Formula looks like this M=Ex/n
Measures of variance
How much the score in a distribution differ from the measure of central tendency
s^2=∑(X-M)^2 ÷n-1; Sum of the squares of the deviations about the mean, divided by the number of scores minus 1
Descriptive, correlational, nonexperimental research strategy
Three types of nonexperimental research
Descriptive research strategy
Not looking at the relationship between two variables but looking at the state of a variable or variables.
Data analysis for Descriptive RS
Use descriptive statistics to summarize a variable for a group of individual
Correlational research strategy
Correlation between two variables, Measurement of two or more interval or ratio scale variables across many levels
Nonexperimental research strategy
Examining a relationship between two variable by looking for a difference between two treatment condition
Rule three of generalization
Operational definitions rule; Precisely what principle do we generalize
Additional variables (other than IV & DV) that can influence the research study, but are not under direct investigation
Uncontrolled variables that systematically change with the IV, and which could therefore systematically affect the DV
Insufficient manipulation of the ID, resulting in no detectable change in the DV
Low measurement reliability can result in making of the effects of the IV manipulation. Poor instruments and poor training can create low reliability
Use a variety of approaches to collect data on range of different behaviours in different times and places
Researcher makes observation of one or more specific behaviours in a particular setting
Correlational observation research
Each individual scored on at least two measures of behaviour, to determine if the variables are correlated
Nonexperimental observation research
A least two groups of individuals are scored on one or more behaviours, to determine if there are differences between groups
Disguised participant observation
Research interacts with the participants, but the participants do no know that they are being observed
Type of archival research data
Statistical records, survey achieves, Written and mass communication record
Four stages of conducting survey research
Develop questions, organize the questions into the full survey, select participants to be targeted in the survey, administer the survey
Rating scale question
A question asking participants to respond by selecting a specific numerical value on a predetermined scale
A scale measuring the agreeableness/disagreeableness within a statement (1-don't agree - 5-agree)
Probability (random) sample
Minimize systematic bias in the sample by randomly selecting the participants
Simple random sampling
Every time you select an individual for a sample, each person must have an equal and constant probability of selection
Stratified random sampling
The sampling avoids random bias in the sample by making subgroup and doing a simple random sampling within the subgroups
Type of nonprobability sample that hand-pick participants to represent certain characteristic
Pretest-posttest experimental design
Get sample - Measure the DV - Manipulate the IV - Measure the DV
Solomon four-group design
Get sample - random assign to posttest experiment or pretest -posttest design - follow each step for the designs
All individuals experience all treatment conditions, and are measured multiple times
Split the sample randomly to two groups - both group experience the manipulation but on the opposite time
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