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### Descriptive statistics

Provide an accurate summary of the important aspects of your data using as few numbers as possible

### Inferential statistics

Uses to make inferences or generalizations from data collected from observing a small sample

### Mean

not applicable to nominal or ordinal scale data. Is known as the average. Formula looks like this M=Ex/n

### Measures of variance

How much the score in a distribution differ from the measure of central tendency

### Variance formula

s^2=∑(X-M)^2 ÷n-1; Sum of the squares of the deviations about the mean, divided by the number of scores minus 1

### Descriptive, correlational, nonexperimental research strategy

Three types of nonexperimental research

### Descriptive research strategy

Not looking at the relationship between two variables but looking at the state of a variable or variables.

### Data analysis for Descriptive RS

Use descriptive statistics to summarize a variable for a group of individual

### Correlational research strategy

Correlation between two variables, Measurement of two or more interval or ratio scale variables across many levels

### Nonexperimental research strategy

Examining a relationship between two variable by looking for a difference between two treatment condition

### Rule three of generalization

Operational definitions rule; Precisely what principle do we generalize

### Extraneous variables

Additional variables (other than IV & DV) that can influence the research study, but are not under direct investigation

### Confounding variables

Uncontrolled variables that systematically change with the IV, and which could therefore systematically affect the DV

### Ineffective manipulation

Insufficient manipulation of the ID, resulting in no detectable change in the DV

### Measurement error

Low measurement reliability can result in making of the effects of the IV manipulation. Poor instruments and poor training can create low reliability

### Naturalistic observation

Use a variety of approaches to collect data on range of different behaviours in different times and places

### Systematic observation

Researcher makes observation of one or more specific behaviours in a particular setting

### Correlational observation research

Each individual scored on at least two measures of behaviour, to determine if the variables are correlated

### Nonexperimental observation research

A least two groups of individuals are scored on one or more behaviours, to determine if there are differences between groups

### Disguised participant observation

Research interacts with the participants, but the participants do no know that they are being observed

### Type of archival research data

Statistical records, survey achieves, Written and mass communication record

### Four stages of conducting survey research

Develop questions, organize the questions into the full survey, select participants to be targeted in the survey, administer the survey

### Rating scale question

A question asking participants to respond by selecting a specific numerical value on a predetermined scale

### Linker scale

A scale measuring the agreeableness/disagreeableness within a statement (1-don't agree - 5-agree)

### Probability (random) sample

Minimize systematic bias in the sample by randomly selecting the participants

### Simple random sampling

Every time you select an individual for a sample, each person must have an equal and constant probability of selection

### Stratified random sampling

The sampling avoids random bias in the sample by making subgroup and doing a simple random sampling within the subgroups

### Quota sampling

Type of nonprobability sample that hand-pick participants to represent certain characteristic

### Pretest-posttest experimental design

Get sample - Measure the DV - Manipulate the IV - Measure the DV

### Solomon four-group design

Get sample - random assign to posttest experiment or pretest -posttest design - follow each step for the designs

### Withing-subject design

All individuals experience all treatment conditions, and are measured multiple times

### Counterbalancing

Split the sample randomly to two groups - both group experience the manipulation but on the opposite time