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91 terms

PSYC 2001

STUDY
PLAY
Descriptive statistics
Provide an accurate summary of the important aspects of your data using as few numbers as possible
Inferential statistics
Uses to make inferences or generalizations from data collected from observing a small sample
Mean, Median, Mode
Measures of central tendency
Standard deviation, variance, range
Measures of dispersion
Person's product moment correlation coefficient
Measures of relationship
Mode
Applicable to data measured on any scales. Which one is the most common?
Median
Is not applicable to nominal scale data. Which one is in the middle
Mean
not applicable to nominal or ordinal scale data. Is known as the average. Formula looks like this M=Ex/n
M
In mean formula; meaning the value of the X's
E
In mean formula; Meaning "Sigma" = Add together all subsequent values
x
In mean formula; meaning the area where numbers are insert
n
In mean formula; meaning the number of observations
Measures of variance
How much the score in a distribution differ from the measure of central tendency
Range
Difference between biggest and smallest score
Variance
Add all deviation scores and divide by the number of deviation scores
Deviation scores
The difference between each score (X) and the mean of all scores (M)
Variance formula
s^2=∑(X-M)^2 ÷n-1; Sum of the squares of the deviations about the mean, divided by the number of scores minus 1
Standard deviation
Square root if the variance; =s=√(∑(X-M)^2÷n-1
BEDMAS
Bracket, Exponent, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction
PODMAS
Parentheses, power Of, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction
My Dear Aunt Sally
Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction
Descriptive, correlational, nonexperimental research strategy
Three types of nonexperimental research
Descriptive research strategy
Not looking at the relationship between two variables but looking at the state of a variable or variables.
Data analysis for Descriptive RS
Use descriptive statistics to summarize a variable for a group of individual
Correlational research strategy
Correlation between two variables, Measurement of two or more interval or ratio scale variables across many levels
Data analysis for Correlational RS
Data are analyzed by correlation analysis
Nonexperimental research strategy
Examining a relationship between two variable by looking for a difference between two treatment condition
Data analysis for Nonexperimental RS
Measure of a single dependent variable in two or moregroups
Measurement validity
Is the measurement measuring what you wanted to measure
Experimental validity
Is the experiment answering the question it was intending to answer
Internal and External Validity
Two types of experimental validity
Internal Validity
The cause and effect is caused only by the variables that are measured
External Validity
Can you generalize this relationship between variables beyond the experiment
experimental design
high internal validity, low external validity
nonexperimental design
low internal validity, high external validity
Generalization
The process by which we translate specific results into broad and general principles
Rule one of generalization
Controlled comparison rule; Do we have internal validity
Rule two of generalization
Sampling rule; Do we have external validity
Rule three of generalization
Operational definitions rule; Precisely what principle do we generalize
Extraneous variables
Additional variables (other than IV & DV) that can influence the research study, but are not under direct investigation
Confounding variables
Uncontrolled variables that systematically change with the IV, and which could therefore systematically affect the DV
Obscuring variables
Factor which make changes in the DV hard to observe
Ineffective manipulation
Insufficient manipulation of the ID, resulting in no detectable change in the DV
Measurement error
Low measurement reliability can result in making of the effects of the IV manipulation. Poor instruments and poor training can create low reliability
Ceiling effect
DV can't go any higher
Floor effect
DV can't go any lower
observational research
The researcher observe how people normally behave
Naturalistic observation
Use a variety of approaches to collect data on range of different behaviours in different times and places
Systematic observation
Researcher makes observation of one or more specific behaviours in a particular setting
Descriptive observational research
Each individual scores on a given measure of behaviour
Correlational observation research
Each individual scored on at least two measures of behaviour, to determine if the variables are correlated
Nonexperimental observation research
A least two groups of individuals are scored on one or more behaviours, to determine if there are differences between groups
Disguised participant observation
Research interacts with the participants, but the participants do no know that they are being observed
Ethology
Branch of biology that deals with the study of behaviour
Archival research
Research using data which was not collecting by the researcher
Type of archival research data
Statistical records, survey achieves, Written and mass communication record
Statistical records
Collected by a range of public and private organizations
Survey archives
Data from previous survey are often available to researchers
Written and mass communication records
Anything else for which there are records
Content analysis
Make recording of data both objective and systematic
Case study
Examine individual instances or cases
Four stages of conducting survey research
Develop questions, organize the questions into the full survey, select participants to be targeted in the survey, administer the survey
Develop questions
Open-ended questions, restricted questions, rating scale questions
Open-ended questions
A question where the respondent can give any answer they like
Restricted questions
A question where there is a limited number of potential responses
Rating scale question
A question asking participants to respond by selecting a specific numerical value on a predetermined scale
Linker scale
A scale measuring the agreeableness/disagreeableness within a statement (1-don't agree - 5-agree)
Rating scale questions
A question where the answer is no limited to a 5 point
Nonverbal scales
A scale good for children (happy face to sad face)
Graphic rating scale
A question where the answer is answered with locating on a line
Cross-sectional design
Data is collected at one time only
Successive independent sample design
A series of cross-selection survey
Longitudinal/panel design
Same set of people are surveyed multiple times
Population
Everyone in which you are interested
Sample
Individuals who take part in the study
Sample size
Larger samples will generalize more accurately to the population
Probability (random) sample
Minimize systematic bias in the sample by randomly selecting the participants
Simple random sampling
Every time you select an individual for a sample, each person must have an equal and constant probability of selection
Systematic sampling
A type of random sampling that is similar to simple random sampling
Stratified random sampling
The sampling avoids random bias in the sample by making subgroup and doing a simple random sampling within the subgroups
Nonprobability sampling
Sample is not selected at random
Convenience sampling
A nonprobability sampling that samples the first person they can find
Quota sampling
Type of nonprobability sample that hand-pick participants to represent certain characteristic
Basic experimental design
Experiment with only two variables
Between-subject design
Different participants are assigned randomly to each of the two groups
Posttest experiment design
Get sample - Manipulate the IV - Measure the DV
Pretest-posttest experimental design
Get sample - Measure the DV - Manipulate the IV - Measure the DV
Solomon four-group design
Get sample - random assign to posttest experiment or pretest -posttest design - follow each step for the designs
Withing-subject design
All individuals experience all treatment conditions, and are measured multiple times
Counterbalancing
Split the sample randomly to two groups - both group experience the manipulation but on the opposite time
Latin square
The box with all the samples experience everything