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INTRO TO PSYCH: CHAPTER 1
Terms in this set (41)
Scientific study of thought and behaviour. Both a clinical practice and a science.
Clinical side of psychology
The clinical side encompasses the services provided in therapists offices, schools, hospitals and business.
Science side of psychology
The science side covers the empirical research that is used to understand how and why people and animals do the things they do
Four main goals of psychologists
1. Describe the way we think and behave
2. Explain behaviour
3. Predicting when future behaviours or mental processes are likely to occur
4. Changing thoughts and behaviour
study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak and solve problems
the study of the links among brain, mind and behaviour
the study of the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and how they influence behaviour and though
the study of how thought and behaviour change and remain stable across the life span
the study of what makes people unique and the consistencies in peoples behaviour across time and situations
the study of how living among others influences thought, feeling, and behaviour
the study of the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioural disorders and the promotion of psychological health
the study of the role that psychological factors play in regard to physical health and illness
the study of how students learn, the effectiveness of particular teaching techniques, the social psychology go schools, and the psychology of teaching
field that blends psychology, law and criminal justice
application of psychological concepts and questions to work settings
the study of psychological factors in sports and exercise
medicine men or women, known as shamans, who would treat the possessed by driving out the demons with elaborate rituals, such as exorcisms, incantations and prayers.
the first to focus on natural and physical explanations for disorders. Ex; using narcotics to treat pain.
Medieval to Early Modern Views
Psychological disorders were again attributed to supernatural causes. people were possessed by evil spirits, the devil and demons, not by physical disorders. People removed the mentally ill from society completely
1800's - the idea that they are simply one form of illness and should be treated as all medical conditions are, with appropriate diagnosis and therapy. (Emil Kraeplin)
20th century, developed a form of therapy called psychoanalysis which was a clinical approach to understanding and treating psychological disorders, psychoanalysis assumes that the unconscious mind is the most powerful force behind thought and behaviour and that dreams have meaning and are the most direct route to the unconscious mind.
The philosophy of Empiricism
English philosopher John Locke established the view that knowledge and thoughts come from experience.
Psychophysics of Human Perception
the first researchers in psychological science developed this field to examine the subjective experience of physical sensations
The first experimental psychologists
Ernst Weber, Gustav Fechner and Hermann von Helmholtz
19th century school of psychology that argued that breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behaviour
19th century school of thought that argues it was better to look at why the mind works the way it does than to describe it parts
the main method of investigation for structuralists; it involves looking into ones own mind for information about the nature of conscious experience
founded by John Watson, a school of psychology that proposed that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behaviour, not ideas, thoughts, feelings or motives. Extreme form of environmentalism.
Maslow and Rogers proposed a theory of psychology that focuses on personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching ones highest potential
scientific approach to studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning
a theory of psychology that maintains that we perceive things as wholes rather than as a compilation of parts
the interdisciplinary study of the structure and function of human and animal brains
a psychological approach that applies evolutionary principles to explain the development of mental characteristics and behaviours
who we are comes from inborn tendencies and genetically based traits
we are all essentially the same at birth, and we are a product of experiences
nature through nurture
the position that the environment constantly interacts with biology to shape who we are and what we do
Renee Descartes stated that the mind and body are separate entities. Mind controls the body.
Separation of the mind and body, allows for the ideas that a soul survives bodily death, the mind is separate form the brain
With respect to biological species, its the change over time in the frequency with which specific gens occur within a breeding species.
Behaviours have genetic bases that are affected by many environmental factors. Human interaction with eh world influences which genes are passed on to future generation, and these in turn shape human behaviour. Formally defines as a feedback process here nature favours one design over another.
inherited solutions to ancestral problems that have been selected for because they contribute in some way to reproductive success